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Exposure to Palladium Nanoparticles Affects Serum Levels of Cytokines in Female Wistar Rats.

Iavicoli I, Fontana L, Corbi M, Leso V, Marinaccio A, Leopold K, Schindl R, Sgambato A - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: In this context, the evaluation of the possible effects exerted by palladium nanoparticles (Pd-NPs) on the immune system is essential to comprehensively assess palladium immunotoxic potential.The highest concentration of Pd-NPs (12 μg/kg) induced a significant increase of IL-1α, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, GM-CSF and INF-γ compared to controls.Our findings did not show an imbalance between cytokines produced by CD4+ T helper (Th) cells 1 and 2, thus suggesting a generalized stimulation of the immune system with a simultaneous activation and polarization of the naïve T cells towards Th1 and Th2 phenotype.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Public Health, Section of Occupational Medicine, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Largo Francesco Vito 1, 00168, Rome, Italy.

ABSTRACT

Background: Information currently available on the impact of palladium on the immune system mainly derives from studies assessing the biological effects of palladium salts. However, in the last years, there has been a notable increase in occupational and environmental levels of fine and ultrafine palladium particles released from automobile catalytic converters, which may play a role in palladium sensitization. In this context, the evaluation of the possible effects exerted by palladium nanoparticles (Pd-NPs) on the immune system is essential to comprehensively assess palladium immunotoxic potential.

Aim: Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Pd-NPs on the immune system of female Wistar rats exposed to this xenobiotic for 14 days, by assessing possible quantitative changes in a number of cytokines: IL-1α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, GM-CSF, INF-γ and TNF-α.

Methods: Twenty rats were randomly divided into four exposure groups and one of control. Animals were given a single tail vein injection of vehicle (control group) and different concentrations of Pd-NPs (0.012, 0.12, 1.2 and 12 μg/kg). A multiplex biometric enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to evaluate cytokine serum levels.

Results: The mean serum concentrations of all cytokines decreased after the administration of 0.012 μg/kg of Pd-NPs, whereas exceeded the control levels at higher exposure doses. The highest concentration of Pd-NPs (12 μg/kg) induced a significant increase of IL-1α, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, GM-CSF and INF-γ compared to controls.

Discussion and conclusions: These results demonstrated that Pd-NP exposure can affect the immune response of rats inducing a stimulatory action that becomes significant at the highest administered dose. Our findings did not show an imbalance between cytokines produced by CD4+ T helper (Th) cells 1 and 2, thus suggesting a generalized stimulation of the immune system with a simultaneous activation and polarization of the naïve T cells towards Th1 and Th2 phenotype.

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Mean serum levels of cytokines in Wistar rats exposed to Pd-NPs compared to control rats.Compared to control values, a rather particular trend was observed in all cytokine serum levels in the treated rats, with a slight decrease at the lowest exposure dose and an increase thereafter with increasing exposure doses. Indeed, the mean serum concentrations of all cytokines appeared to decrease after the administration of 0.012 μg/kg Pd-NPs, whereas their values exceeded the control levels at higher doses of exposure (0.12, 1.2 and 12 μg/kg).
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pone.0143801.g002: Mean serum levels of cytokines in Wistar rats exposed to Pd-NPs compared to control rats.Compared to control values, a rather particular trend was observed in all cytokine serum levels in the treated rats, with a slight decrease at the lowest exposure dose and an increase thereafter with increasing exposure doses. Indeed, the mean serum concentrations of all cytokines appeared to decrease after the administration of 0.012 μg/kg Pd-NPs, whereas their values exceeded the control levels at higher doses of exposure (0.12, 1.2 and 12 μg/kg).

Mentions: Table 2, Figs 2 and 3 and S1 Fig show serum levels of the various cytokines (IL-1α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, GM-CSF, INF-γ and TNF-α) in rats after the intravenous administration of 0.012, 0.12, 1.2 and 12 μg/Kg of Pd-NPs. The results obtained demonstrated that exposure to Pd-NPs was able to affect immune response in female Wistar rats. Indeed, each cytokine investigated showed alterations in serum concentrations compared to the control levels. The mean serum concentrations of all cytokines appeared to decrease after the administration of 0.012 μg/kg Pd-NPs, whereas their values exceeded the control levels at higher doses of exposure (0.12, 1.2 and 12 μg/kg).


Exposure to Palladium Nanoparticles Affects Serum Levels of Cytokines in Female Wistar Rats.

Iavicoli I, Fontana L, Corbi M, Leso V, Marinaccio A, Leopold K, Schindl R, Sgambato A - PLoS ONE (2015)

Mean serum levels of cytokines in Wistar rats exposed to Pd-NPs compared to control rats.Compared to control values, a rather particular trend was observed in all cytokine serum levels in the treated rats, with a slight decrease at the lowest exposure dose and an increase thereafter with increasing exposure doses. Indeed, the mean serum concentrations of all cytokines appeared to decrease after the administration of 0.012 μg/kg Pd-NPs, whereas their values exceeded the control levels at higher doses of exposure (0.12, 1.2 and 12 μg/kg).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4664404&req=5

pone.0143801.g002: Mean serum levels of cytokines in Wistar rats exposed to Pd-NPs compared to control rats.Compared to control values, a rather particular trend was observed in all cytokine serum levels in the treated rats, with a slight decrease at the lowest exposure dose and an increase thereafter with increasing exposure doses. Indeed, the mean serum concentrations of all cytokines appeared to decrease after the administration of 0.012 μg/kg Pd-NPs, whereas their values exceeded the control levels at higher doses of exposure (0.12, 1.2 and 12 μg/kg).
Mentions: Table 2, Figs 2 and 3 and S1 Fig show serum levels of the various cytokines (IL-1α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, GM-CSF, INF-γ and TNF-α) in rats after the intravenous administration of 0.012, 0.12, 1.2 and 12 μg/Kg of Pd-NPs. The results obtained demonstrated that exposure to Pd-NPs was able to affect immune response in female Wistar rats. Indeed, each cytokine investigated showed alterations in serum concentrations compared to the control levels. The mean serum concentrations of all cytokines appeared to decrease after the administration of 0.012 μg/kg Pd-NPs, whereas their values exceeded the control levels at higher doses of exposure (0.12, 1.2 and 12 μg/kg).

Bottom Line: In this context, the evaluation of the possible effects exerted by palladium nanoparticles (Pd-NPs) on the immune system is essential to comprehensively assess palladium immunotoxic potential.The highest concentration of Pd-NPs (12 μg/kg) induced a significant increase of IL-1α, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, GM-CSF and INF-γ compared to controls.Our findings did not show an imbalance between cytokines produced by CD4+ T helper (Th) cells 1 and 2, thus suggesting a generalized stimulation of the immune system with a simultaneous activation and polarization of the naïve T cells towards Th1 and Th2 phenotype.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Public Health, Section of Occupational Medicine, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Largo Francesco Vito 1, 00168, Rome, Italy.

ABSTRACT

Background: Information currently available on the impact of palladium on the immune system mainly derives from studies assessing the biological effects of palladium salts. However, in the last years, there has been a notable increase in occupational and environmental levels of fine and ultrafine palladium particles released from automobile catalytic converters, which may play a role in palladium sensitization. In this context, the evaluation of the possible effects exerted by palladium nanoparticles (Pd-NPs) on the immune system is essential to comprehensively assess palladium immunotoxic potential.

Aim: Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Pd-NPs on the immune system of female Wistar rats exposed to this xenobiotic for 14 days, by assessing possible quantitative changes in a number of cytokines: IL-1α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, GM-CSF, INF-γ and TNF-α.

Methods: Twenty rats were randomly divided into four exposure groups and one of control. Animals were given a single tail vein injection of vehicle (control group) and different concentrations of Pd-NPs (0.012, 0.12, 1.2 and 12 μg/kg). A multiplex biometric enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to evaluate cytokine serum levels.

Results: The mean serum concentrations of all cytokines decreased after the administration of 0.012 μg/kg of Pd-NPs, whereas exceeded the control levels at higher exposure doses. The highest concentration of Pd-NPs (12 μg/kg) induced a significant increase of IL-1α, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, GM-CSF and INF-γ compared to controls.

Discussion and conclusions: These results demonstrated that Pd-NP exposure can affect the immune response of rats inducing a stimulatory action that becomes significant at the highest administered dose. Our findings did not show an imbalance between cytokines produced by CD4+ T helper (Th) cells 1 and 2, thus suggesting a generalized stimulation of the immune system with a simultaneous activation and polarization of the naïve T cells towards Th1 and Th2 phenotype.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus