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3D Printing Bioceramic Porous Scaffolds with Good Mechanical Property and Cell Affinity.

Chang CH, Lin CY, Liu FH, Chen MH, Lin CP, Ho HN, Liao YS - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Bi-component CaCO3/SiO2-sol was prepared as a biocomposite for the 3DP scaffold.The compressive strength was 47 MPa, and the porosity was 34%.The silica bioceramic presented no cytotoxicity and good MG-63 osteoblast-like cell affinity, demonstrating good biocompatibility.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Orthopedics, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT
Artificial bone grafting is widely used in current orthopedic surgery for bone defect problems. Unfortunately, surgeons remain unsatisfied with the current commercially available products. One of the major complaints is that these products cannot provide sufficient mechanical strength to support the human skeletal structure. In this study, we aimed to develop a bone scaffold with better mechanical property and good cell affinity by 3D printing (3DP) techniques. A self-developed 3D printer with laser-aided gelling (LAG) process was used to fabricate bioceramic scaffolds with inter-porous structures. To improve the mechanical property of the bioceramic parts after heating, CaCO3 was added to the silica ceramic slurry. CaCO3 was blended into a homogenous SiO2-sol dispersion at weight ratios varying from 0/100 to 5/95 to 9/91 (w/w). Bi-component CaCO3/SiO2-sol was prepared as a biocomposite for the 3DP scaffold. The well-mixed biocomposite was used to fabricate the bioceramic green part using the LAG method. The varied scaffolds were sintered at different temperatures ranging from 900 to 1500°C, and the mechanical property was subsequently analyzed. The scaffolds showed good property with the composite ratio of 5:95 CaCO3:SiO2 at a sintering temperature of 1300°C. The compressive strength was 47 MPa, and the porosity was 34%. The topography of the sintered 3DP bioceramic scaffold was examined by SEM, EDS and XRD. The silica bioceramic presented no cytotoxicity and good MG-63 osteoblast-like cell affinity, demonstrating good biocompatibility. Therefore, the new silica biocomposite is viable for fabricating 3DP bone bioceramics with improved mechanical property and good cell affinity.

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The microstructure of CS9 after heat treatment at various temperatures:(a) 900°C, (b) 1100°C, (c) 1300°C and (d) 1500°C.
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pone.0143713.g005: The microstructure of CS9 after heat treatment at various temperatures:(a) 900°C, (b) 1100°C, (c) 1300°C and (d) 1500°C.

Mentions: When CS9 is heated to 900°C, the surface precipitates rhombic crystals, similar to CS5, and the crystal size is approximately 0.5 μm. This result demonstrates that an increase in the CaCO3 content results in a metamorphic state in the size of the rhombic-like crystals, as shown in Fig 5a. When the temperature is raised to 1100°C, the needle-like crystals of CS9 is smaller than CS5, and the CaCO3 content of CS9 is higher than CS5. Hence, the needle crystal may be Ca2SiO4 which has a lower compressive strength than CaSiO3 [29]. Our compressive strength results are shown in Fig 2a and indicate that the CS9 structure is poorer than the CS5 structure. When the temperature rises to 1300°C, the needle-like crystals on the surface of CS9 disappear, as shown in Fig 5c. When the temperature is 1500°C, a massive smooth structure is formed, but the surface begins to crack and the strength of the structure is weakened as shown in Fig 5d. This process results in a sudden decrease in the compressive strength (Fig 2a).


3D Printing Bioceramic Porous Scaffolds with Good Mechanical Property and Cell Affinity.

Chang CH, Lin CY, Liu FH, Chen MH, Lin CP, Ho HN, Liao YS - PLoS ONE (2015)

The microstructure of CS9 after heat treatment at various temperatures:(a) 900°C, (b) 1100°C, (c) 1300°C and (d) 1500°C.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4664392&req=5

pone.0143713.g005: The microstructure of CS9 after heat treatment at various temperatures:(a) 900°C, (b) 1100°C, (c) 1300°C and (d) 1500°C.
Mentions: When CS9 is heated to 900°C, the surface precipitates rhombic crystals, similar to CS5, and the crystal size is approximately 0.5 μm. This result demonstrates that an increase in the CaCO3 content results in a metamorphic state in the size of the rhombic-like crystals, as shown in Fig 5a. When the temperature is raised to 1100°C, the needle-like crystals of CS9 is smaller than CS5, and the CaCO3 content of CS9 is higher than CS5. Hence, the needle crystal may be Ca2SiO4 which has a lower compressive strength than CaSiO3 [29]. Our compressive strength results are shown in Fig 2a and indicate that the CS9 structure is poorer than the CS5 structure. When the temperature rises to 1300°C, the needle-like crystals on the surface of CS9 disappear, as shown in Fig 5c. When the temperature is 1500°C, a massive smooth structure is formed, but the surface begins to crack and the strength of the structure is weakened as shown in Fig 5d. This process results in a sudden decrease in the compressive strength (Fig 2a).

Bottom Line: Bi-component CaCO3/SiO2-sol was prepared as a biocomposite for the 3DP scaffold.The compressive strength was 47 MPa, and the porosity was 34%.The silica bioceramic presented no cytotoxicity and good MG-63 osteoblast-like cell affinity, demonstrating good biocompatibility.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Orthopedics, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT
Artificial bone grafting is widely used in current orthopedic surgery for bone defect problems. Unfortunately, surgeons remain unsatisfied with the current commercially available products. One of the major complaints is that these products cannot provide sufficient mechanical strength to support the human skeletal structure. In this study, we aimed to develop a bone scaffold with better mechanical property and good cell affinity by 3D printing (3DP) techniques. A self-developed 3D printer with laser-aided gelling (LAG) process was used to fabricate bioceramic scaffolds with inter-porous structures. To improve the mechanical property of the bioceramic parts after heating, CaCO3 was added to the silica ceramic slurry. CaCO3 was blended into a homogenous SiO2-sol dispersion at weight ratios varying from 0/100 to 5/95 to 9/91 (w/w). Bi-component CaCO3/SiO2-sol was prepared as a biocomposite for the 3DP scaffold. The well-mixed biocomposite was used to fabricate the bioceramic green part using the LAG method. The varied scaffolds were sintered at different temperatures ranging from 900 to 1500°C, and the mechanical property was subsequently analyzed. The scaffolds showed good property with the composite ratio of 5:95 CaCO3:SiO2 at a sintering temperature of 1300°C. The compressive strength was 47 MPa, and the porosity was 34%. The topography of the sintered 3DP bioceramic scaffold was examined by SEM, EDS and XRD. The silica bioceramic presented no cytotoxicity and good MG-63 osteoblast-like cell affinity, demonstrating good biocompatibility. Therefore, the new silica biocomposite is viable for fabricating 3DP bone bioceramics with improved mechanical property and good cell affinity.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus