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Relative Pigment Composition and Remote Sensing Reflectance of Caribbean Shallow-Water Corals.

Torres-Pérez JL, Guild LS, Armstrong RA, Corredor J, Zuluaga-Montero A, Polanco R - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: We found a total of 27 different pigments among the coral species, including some alteration products of the main pigments.Additionally, pigments typically found in endolithic algae were also identified.Depending on the coral species, the Rrs and the total symbiont pigment concentration per coral tissue area correlation showed 79.5-98.5% confidence levels demonstrating its use as a non-invasive robust technique to estimate pigment concentration in studies of coral reef biodiversity and health.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Bay Area Environmental Research Institute/NASA Ames Research Center, MS 245-4, Bldg 245, Rm. 120, Moffett Field, CA, 94035, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Reef corals typically contain a number of pigments, mostly due to their symbiotic relationship with photosynthetic dinoflagellates. These pigments usually vary in presence and concentration and influence the spectral characteristics of corals. We studied the variations in pigment composition among seven Caribbean shallow-water Scleractinian corals by means of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis to further resolve the discrimination of corals. We found a total of 27 different pigments among the coral species, including some alteration products of the main pigments. Additionally, pigments typically found in endolithic algae were also identified. A Principal Components Analysis and a Hierarchical Cluster Analysis showed the separation of coral species based on pigment composition. All the corals were collected under the same physical environmental conditions. This suggests that pigment in the coral's symbionts might be more genetically-determined than influenced by prevailing physical conditions of the reef. We further investigated the use of remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) as a tool for estimating the total pigment concentration of reef corals. Depending on the coral species, the Rrs and the total symbiont pigment concentration per coral tissue area correlation showed 79.5-98.5% confidence levels demonstrating its use as a non-invasive robust technique to estimate pigment concentration in studies of coral reef biodiversity and health.

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Multivariate statistical analysis of coral pigments.A) PCA and B) HCA showing the grouping of the seven coral species based on the concentration of the main photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls, carotenes and xanthophylls). The most common symbiont clade found in each coral species (based on published literature) is shown next to the coral species name.
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pone.0143709.g004: Multivariate statistical analysis of coral pigments.A) PCA and B) HCA showing the grouping of the seven coral species based on the concentration of the main photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls, carotenes and xanthophylls). The most common symbiont clade found in each coral species (based on published literature) is shown next to the coral species name.

Mentions: The PCA resulted in a matrix of the main individual pigment concentrations, relative individual pigment composition, pigments groups and relative pigment group composition. We evaluated 12 principal components (PC) for symbiont pigment: total concentration of chlorophylls, carotenes and xanthophylls; percentage of chlorophylls, carotenes and xanthophylls; concentration and percentage of the three main pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c2 and peridinin). These principal components were evaluated against the PC eigenvectors, which showed which of these PC were the most deterministic in grouping of the seven coral species studied. The first two PC explained 87.2% of the variation between coral species. PC1 (a combination of the concentration of peridinin and the percent of chlorophylls) explained 68% of the variation, while the PC2 (a combination of the concentration of chlorophylls and the concentration of carotenes) explained 19.2% of the variation (Fig 4A). The HCA showed that the pigment composition of Caribbean shallow-water reef corals is directly related to the type of symbiont clade that they harbor (Fig 4B). In fact, the analysis indicates that while photosynthetic pigment concentration in a particular coral colony may be influenced by the light conditions [3,44–45], the relative proportion of the main groups is directly related to the symbiont clade present within the coral tissue, and as such, this can be an alternate way of separating coral and symbiont taxa. Both the PCA and HCA confirmed the same distinct separation of the seven coral species based on the concentration of the main photosynthetic pigments. Our findings are based on reported symbiont clades for the studied species. A genetic analysis may further confirm these findings.


Relative Pigment Composition and Remote Sensing Reflectance of Caribbean Shallow-Water Corals.

Torres-Pérez JL, Guild LS, Armstrong RA, Corredor J, Zuluaga-Montero A, Polanco R - PLoS ONE (2015)

Multivariate statistical analysis of coral pigments.A) PCA and B) HCA showing the grouping of the seven coral species based on the concentration of the main photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls, carotenes and xanthophylls). The most common symbiont clade found in each coral species (based on published literature) is shown next to the coral species name.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4664284&req=5

pone.0143709.g004: Multivariate statistical analysis of coral pigments.A) PCA and B) HCA showing the grouping of the seven coral species based on the concentration of the main photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls, carotenes and xanthophylls). The most common symbiont clade found in each coral species (based on published literature) is shown next to the coral species name.
Mentions: The PCA resulted in a matrix of the main individual pigment concentrations, relative individual pigment composition, pigments groups and relative pigment group composition. We evaluated 12 principal components (PC) for symbiont pigment: total concentration of chlorophylls, carotenes and xanthophylls; percentage of chlorophylls, carotenes and xanthophylls; concentration and percentage of the three main pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c2 and peridinin). These principal components were evaluated against the PC eigenvectors, which showed which of these PC were the most deterministic in grouping of the seven coral species studied. The first two PC explained 87.2% of the variation between coral species. PC1 (a combination of the concentration of peridinin and the percent of chlorophylls) explained 68% of the variation, while the PC2 (a combination of the concentration of chlorophylls and the concentration of carotenes) explained 19.2% of the variation (Fig 4A). The HCA showed that the pigment composition of Caribbean shallow-water reef corals is directly related to the type of symbiont clade that they harbor (Fig 4B). In fact, the analysis indicates that while photosynthetic pigment concentration in a particular coral colony may be influenced by the light conditions [3,44–45], the relative proportion of the main groups is directly related to the symbiont clade present within the coral tissue, and as such, this can be an alternate way of separating coral and symbiont taxa. Both the PCA and HCA confirmed the same distinct separation of the seven coral species based on the concentration of the main photosynthetic pigments. Our findings are based on reported symbiont clades for the studied species. A genetic analysis may further confirm these findings.

Bottom Line: We found a total of 27 different pigments among the coral species, including some alteration products of the main pigments.Additionally, pigments typically found in endolithic algae were also identified.Depending on the coral species, the Rrs and the total symbiont pigment concentration per coral tissue area correlation showed 79.5-98.5% confidence levels demonstrating its use as a non-invasive robust technique to estimate pigment concentration in studies of coral reef biodiversity and health.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Bay Area Environmental Research Institute/NASA Ames Research Center, MS 245-4, Bldg 245, Rm. 120, Moffett Field, CA, 94035, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Reef corals typically contain a number of pigments, mostly due to their symbiotic relationship with photosynthetic dinoflagellates. These pigments usually vary in presence and concentration and influence the spectral characteristics of corals. We studied the variations in pigment composition among seven Caribbean shallow-water Scleractinian corals by means of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis to further resolve the discrimination of corals. We found a total of 27 different pigments among the coral species, including some alteration products of the main pigments. Additionally, pigments typically found in endolithic algae were also identified. A Principal Components Analysis and a Hierarchical Cluster Analysis showed the separation of coral species based on pigment composition. All the corals were collected under the same physical environmental conditions. This suggests that pigment in the coral's symbionts might be more genetically-determined than influenced by prevailing physical conditions of the reef. We further investigated the use of remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) as a tool for estimating the total pigment concentration of reef corals. Depending on the coral species, the Rrs and the total symbiont pigment concentration per coral tissue area correlation showed 79.5-98.5% confidence levels demonstrating its use as a non-invasive robust technique to estimate pigment concentration in studies of coral reef biodiversity and health.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus