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Constraints on Negative Prefixation in Polish Sign Language.

Tomaszewski P - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: This is of interest given the relative rarity of prefixes in sign languages.Prefixed PJM signs were analyzed on the basis of both a corpus of texts signed by 15 deaf PJM users who are either native or near-native signers, and material including a specified range of prefixed signs as demonstrated by native signers in dictionary form (i.e. signs produced in isolation, not as part of phrases or sentences).In order to define the morphological rules behind prefixation on both the phonological and morphological levels, native PJM users were consulted for their expertise.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Psychology, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

ABSTRACT
The aim of this article is to describe a negative prefix, NEG-, in Polish Sign Language (PJM) which appears to be indigenous to the language. This is of interest given the relative rarity of prefixes in sign languages. Prefixed PJM signs were analyzed on the basis of both a corpus of texts signed by 15 deaf PJM users who are either native or near-native signers, and material including a specified range of prefixed signs as demonstrated by native signers in dictionary form (i.e. signs produced in isolation, not as part of phrases or sentences). In order to define the morphological rules behind prefixation on both the phonological and morphological levels, native PJM users were consulted for their expertise. The research results can enrich models for describing processes of grammaticalization in the context of the visual-gestural modality that forms the basis for sign language structure.

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Examples of a suppletive negative and a negative suffix.The two individuals in this figure have given written informed consent (as outlined in PLOS consent form) to publish these case details.
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pone.0143574.g006: Examples of a suppletive negative and a negative suffix.The two individuals in this figure have given written informed consent (as outlined in PLOS consent form) to publish these case details.

Mentions: There is a restriction concerning the occurrence of two types of irregular negatives in PJM, negative suppletion and the negative suffix. Indeed, these types of irregular negatives are limited to a few signs in PJM but, interestingly, if a PJM sign has a suppletive negative form or a negative suffix, then the prefix NEG- cannot be attached to their positive counterparts. It was noted that in many different sign languages there is a small set of verbs that have special negative marking attached to them (which is also true for PJM) [1,5,7,8,9,16,20]. Although this kind of marker seems to be a negative suffix, it is not productive according to these authors and is more integral to the sign base than is the case with a suffix. On the other hand, the PJM “underspecified suffix” -NEG complies with the criteria proposed by Zwicky and Pullum [34]. It is worth noting that the set of verbs that take this suffix differs across languages. However one verb does take this suffix in PJM, ASL and ISL. This is the sign ZNAĆ+NEG ‘not know’ in PJM (Fig 6B) and the sign NOT-KNOW in ASL (see [37]) and ISL (see [9]). The sign ZNAĆ or KNOW can be negated with this underspecified marker by adding an orientation rotation and a downward movement to the sign. Such negation, as previously mentioned, is termed negative incorporation [16]. However, the special negative marking hypothesis requires further research to determine the function of the negative marker.


Constraints on Negative Prefixation in Polish Sign Language.

Tomaszewski P - PLoS ONE (2015)

Examples of a suppletive negative and a negative suffix.The two individuals in this figure have given written informed consent (as outlined in PLOS consent form) to publish these case details.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4664272&req=5

pone.0143574.g006: Examples of a suppletive negative and a negative suffix.The two individuals in this figure have given written informed consent (as outlined in PLOS consent form) to publish these case details.
Mentions: There is a restriction concerning the occurrence of two types of irregular negatives in PJM, negative suppletion and the negative suffix. Indeed, these types of irregular negatives are limited to a few signs in PJM but, interestingly, if a PJM sign has a suppletive negative form or a negative suffix, then the prefix NEG- cannot be attached to their positive counterparts. It was noted that in many different sign languages there is a small set of verbs that have special negative marking attached to them (which is also true for PJM) [1,5,7,8,9,16,20]. Although this kind of marker seems to be a negative suffix, it is not productive according to these authors and is more integral to the sign base than is the case with a suffix. On the other hand, the PJM “underspecified suffix” -NEG complies with the criteria proposed by Zwicky and Pullum [34]. It is worth noting that the set of verbs that take this suffix differs across languages. However one verb does take this suffix in PJM, ASL and ISL. This is the sign ZNAĆ+NEG ‘not know’ in PJM (Fig 6B) and the sign NOT-KNOW in ASL (see [37]) and ISL (see [9]). The sign ZNAĆ or KNOW can be negated with this underspecified marker by adding an orientation rotation and a downward movement to the sign. Such negation, as previously mentioned, is termed negative incorporation [16]. However, the special negative marking hypothesis requires further research to determine the function of the negative marker.

Bottom Line: This is of interest given the relative rarity of prefixes in sign languages.Prefixed PJM signs were analyzed on the basis of both a corpus of texts signed by 15 deaf PJM users who are either native or near-native signers, and material including a specified range of prefixed signs as demonstrated by native signers in dictionary form (i.e. signs produced in isolation, not as part of phrases or sentences).In order to define the morphological rules behind prefixation on both the phonological and morphological levels, native PJM users were consulted for their expertise.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Psychology, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

ABSTRACT
The aim of this article is to describe a negative prefix, NEG-, in Polish Sign Language (PJM) which appears to be indigenous to the language. This is of interest given the relative rarity of prefixes in sign languages. Prefixed PJM signs were analyzed on the basis of both a corpus of texts signed by 15 deaf PJM users who are either native or near-native signers, and material including a specified range of prefixed signs as demonstrated by native signers in dictionary form (i.e. signs produced in isolation, not as part of phrases or sentences). In order to define the morphological rules behind prefixation on both the phonological and morphological levels, native PJM users were consulted for their expertise. The research results can enrich models for describing processes of grammaticalization in the context of the visual-gestural modality that forms the basis for sign language structure.

Show MeSH