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Cultivar and Year Rather than Agricultural Practices Affect Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Apple Fruit.

Le Bourvellec C, Bureau S, Renard CM, Plenet D, Gautier H, Touloumet L, Girard T, Simon S - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The main factors affecting primary and secondary metabolites, in both apple skin and flesh, were by far the cultivar and the yearly conditions, while the management system had a very limited effect.When considering the three cultivars and the year 2011 to investigate the effect of the management system per se, only few compounds differed significantly between the three systems and in particular the total phenolic content did not differ significantly between systems.Finally, when considering orchards grown in the same pedoclimatic conditions and of the same age, instead of the usual organic vs. conventional comparison, the effect of the management system on the apple fruit quality (Fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, individual sugars, organic acids, and phenolics) was very limited to non-significant.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: UMR408 Sécurité et Qualité des Produits d'Origine Végétale, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Avignon, France.

ABSTRACT
Many biotic and abiotic parameters affect the metabolites involved in the organoleptic and health value of fruits. It is therefore important to understand how the growers' decisions for cultivar and orchard management can affect the fruit composition. Practices, cultivars and/or year all might participate to determine fruit composition. To hierarchize these factors, fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids contents, titratable acidity, individual sugars and organics acids, and phenolics were measured in three apple cultivars ('Ariane', 'Melrose' and 'Smoothee') managed under organic, low-input and conventional management. Apples were harvested at commercial maturity in the orchards of the cropping system experiment BioREco at INRA Gotheron (Drôme, 26) over the course of three years (2011, 2012 and 2013). The main factors affecting primary and secondary metabolites, in both apple skin and flesh, were by far the cultivar and the yearly conditions, while the management system had a very limited effect. When considering the three cultivars and the year 2011 to investigate the effect of the management system per se, only few compounds differed significantly between the three systems and in particular the total phenolic content did not differ significantly between systems. Finally, when considering orchards grown in the same pedoclimatic conditions and of the same age, instead of the usual organic vs. conventional comparison, the effect of the management system on the apple fruit quality (Fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, individual sugars, organic acids, and phenolics) was very limited to non-significant. The main factors of variation were the cultivar and the year of cropping rather than the cropping system. More generally, as each management system (e.g. conventional, organic…) encompasses a great variability of practices, this highlights the importance of accurately documenting orchard practices and design beside the generic type of management in such studies.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Comparison of metabolite levels in the apple skin as function of the management system for variables with significant management system effects (P ≤ 0.05, Table 5) in 2011.For each variable, values marked with the same letter do not differ significantly (P ≥ 0.05).
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pone.0141916.g005: Comparison of metabolite levels in the apple skin as function of the management system for variables with significant management system effects (P ≤ 0.05, Table 5) in 2011.For each variable, values marked with the same letter do not differ significantly (P ≥ 0.05).

Mentions: In the skin, the cultivar effect was significant (P < 0.05) for all variables tested, except for phloretin-2-O-xyloglucoside, phloridzin and fructose (Table 5). The management system was significant for 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, malic acid, (-)-epicatechin, phloridzin, sorbitol, total flavonols, total anthocyanins, titratable acidity and mDP (Table 5, Fig 5). F-values of cultivar effects were also higher than F-values of management system ones except for phloridzin. Conventional samples had significantly lower skin content of 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (Fig 5A), (-)-epicatechin (Fig 5B), phloridzin (Fig 5C), and malic acid (Fig 5H) compared to organic and low-input samples, for which concentrations were similar. Similarly, a significantly lower content of total flavonols, total anthocyanins, sorbitol and titratable acidity were found in the skin of conventional and low-input samples compared to organic samples. However, the mDP of procyanidins was significantly lower in organic samples compared to the conventional samples.


Cultivar and Year Rather than Agricultural Practices Affect Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Apple Fruit.

Le Bourvellec C, Bureau S, Renard CM, Plenet D, Gautier H, Touloumet L, Girard T, Simon S - PLoS ONE (2015)

Comparison of metabolite levels in the apple skin as function of the management system for variables with significant management system effects (P ≤ 0.05, Table 5) in 2011.For each variable, values marked with the same letter do not differ significantly (P ≥ 0.05).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4664253&req=5

pone.0141916.g005: Comparison of metabolite levels in the apple skin as function of the management system for variables with significant management system effects (P ≤ 0.05, Table 5) in 2011.For each variable, values marked with the same letter do not differ significantly (P ≥ 0.05).
Mentions: In the skin, the cultivar effect was significant (P < 0.05) for all variables tested, except for phloretin-2-O-xyloglucoside, phloridzin and fructose (Table 5). The management system was significant for 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, malic acid, (-)-epicatechin, phloridzin, sorbitol, total flavonols, total anthocyanins, titratable acidity and mDP (Table 5, Fig 5). F-values of cultivar effects were also higher than F-values of management system ones except for phloridzin. Conventional samples had significantly lower skin content of 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (Fig 5A), (-)-epicatechin (Fig 5B), phloridzin (Fig 5C), and malic acid (Fig 5H) compared to organic and low-input samples, for which concentrations were similar. Similarly, a significantly lower content of total flavonols, total anthocyanins, sorbitol and titratable acidity were found in the skin of conventional and low-input samples compared to organic samples. However, the mDP of procyanidins was significantly lower in organic samples compared to the conventional samples.

Bottom Line: The main factors affecting primary and secondary metabolites, in both apple skin and flesh, were by far the cultivar and the yearly conditions, while the management system had a very limited effect.When considering the three cultivars and the year 2011 to investigate the effect of the management system per se, only few compounds differed significantly between the three systems and in particular the total phenolic content did not differ significantly between systems.Finally, when considering orchards grown in the same pedoclimatic conditions and of the same age, instead of the usual organic vs. conventional comparison, the effect of the management system on the apple fruit quality (Fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, individual sugars, organic acids, and phenolics) was very limited to non-significant.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: UMR408 Sécurité et Qualité des Produits d'Origine Végétale, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Avignon, France.

ABSTRACT
Many biotic and abiotic parameters affect the metabolites involved in the organoleptic and health value of fruits. It is therefore important to understand how the growers' decisions for cultivar and orchard management can affect the fruit composition. Practices, cultivars and/or year all might participate to determine fruit composition. To hierarchize these factors, fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids contents, titratable acidity, individual sugars and organics acids, and phenolics were measured in three apple cultivars ('Ariane', 'Melrose' and 'Smoothee') managed under organic, low-input and conventional management. Apples were harvested at commercial maturity in the orchards of the cropping system experiment BioREco at INRA Gotheron (Drôme, 26) over the course of three years (2011, 2012 and 2013). The main factors affecting primary and secondary metabolites, in both apple skin and flesh, were by far the cultivar and the yearly conditions, while the management system had a very limited effect. When considering the three cultivars and the year 2011 to investigate the effect of the management system per se, only few compounds differed significantly between the three systems and in particular the total phenolic content did not differ significantly between systems. Finally, when considering orchards grown in the same pedoclimatic conditions and of the same age, instead of the usual organic vs. conventional comparison, the effect of the management system on the apple fruit quality (Fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, individual sugars, organic acids, and phenolics) was very limited to non-significant. The main factors of variation were the cultivar and the year of cropping rather than the cropping system. More generally, as each management system (e.g. conventional, organic…) encompasses a great variability of practices, this highlights the importance of accurately documenting orchard practices and design beside the generic type of management in such studies.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus