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Cultivar and Year Rather than Agricultural Practices Affect Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Apple Fruit.

Le Bourvellec C, Bureau S, Renard CM, Plenet D, Gautier H, Touloumet L, Girard T, Simon S - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The main factors affecting primary and secondary metabolites, in both apple skin and flesh, were by far the cultivar and the yearly conditions, while the management system had a very limited effect.When considering the three cultivars and the year 2011 to investigate the effect of the management system per se, only few compounds differed significantly between the three systems and in particular the total phenolic content did not differ significantly between systems.Finally, when considering orchards grown in the same pedoclimatic conditions and of the same age, instead of the usual organic vs. conventional comparison, the effect of the management system on the apple fruit quality (Fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, individual sugars, organic acids, and phenolics) was very limited to non-significant.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: UMR408 Sécurité et Qualité des Produits d'Origine Végétale, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Avignon, France.

ABSTRACT
Many biotic and abiotic parameters affect the metabolites involved in the organoleptic and health value of fruits. It is therefore important to understand how the growers' decisions for cultivar and orchard management can affect the fruit composition. Practices, cultivars and/or year all might participate to determine fruit composition. To hierarchize these factors, fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids contents, titratable acidity, individual sugars and organics acids, and phenolics were measured in three apple cultivars ('Ariane', 'Melrose' and 'Smoothee') managed under organic, low-input and conventional management. Apples were harvested at commercial maturity in the orchards of the cropping system experiment BioREco at INRA Gotheron (Drôme, 26) over the course of three years (2011, 2012 and 2013). The main factors affecting primary and secondary metabolites, in both apple skin and flesh, were by far the cultivar and the yearly conditions, while the management system had a very limited effect. When considering the three cultivars and the year 2011 to investigate the effect of the management system per se, only few compounds differed significantly between the three systems and in particular the total phenolic content did not differ significantly between systems. Finally, when considering orchards grown in the same pedoclimatic conditions and of the same age, instead of the usual organic vs. conventional comparison, the effect of the management system on the apple fruit quality (Fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, individual sugars, organic acids, and phenolics) was very limited to non-significant. The main factors of variation were the cultivar and the year of cropping rather than the cropping system. More generally, as each management system (e.g. conventional, organic…) encompasses a great variability of practices, this highlights the importance of accurately documenting orchard practices and design beside the generic type of management in such studies.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Comparison of metabolite levels in the apple pulp and fruit weight as function of management system for variables with significant management system effects (P ≤ 0.05, Table 5) in 2011.For each variable, values marked with the same letter do not differ significantly (P ≥ 0.05).
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pone.0141916.g004: Comparison of metabolite levels in the apple pulp and fruit weight as function of management system for variables with significant management system effects (P ≤ 0.05, Table 5) in 2011.For each variable, values marked with the same letter do not differ significantly (P ≥ 0.05).

Mentions: In the pulp, the cultivar effect was significant (P < 0.05) for all tested variables, except for phloretin-2-O-xyloglucoside and citric acid (Table 5). The management system was only significant for fruit weight, glucose, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, mDP and phloretin-2O-xyloglucoside (Table 5). F-values of cultivar effects were higher than F-values of management system except for (+)-catechin and phloretin-2-O-xyloglucoside. Although system management effects were observed, organic fruits did not necessarily contain higher primary or secondary metabolite contents. Fig 4 shows the values per management system for the few metabolites for which management systems effects were significant (Table 5). Organic fruits had significantly lower content of (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin compared to conventional and low-input samples. However, for phloretin-2-O-xyloglucoside a significantly higher content was found in organic samples compared to the conventional system. The mDP of procyanidins was significantly lower in organic compared to conventional samples. The same trend was observed for glucose presenting highest concentration in the conventional samples compared to both other management systems that did not differ among them. The fruit weight was similar in the low-input and conventional samples, but was significantly lower in the organic samples.


Cultivar and Year Rather than Agricultural Practices Affect Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Apple Fruit.

Le Bourvellec C, Bureau S, Renard CM, Plenet D, Gautier H, Touloumet L, Girard T, Simon S - PLoS ONE (2015)

Comparison of metabolite levels in the apple pulp and fruit weight as function of management system for variables with significant management system effects (P ≤ 0.05, Table 5) in 2011.For each variable, values marked with the same letter do not differ significantly (P ≥ 0.05).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4664253&req=5

pone.0141916.g004: Comparison of metabolite levels in the apple pulp and fruit weight as function of management system for variables with significant management system effects (P ≤ 0.05, Table 5) in 2011.For each variable, values marked with the same letter do not differ significantly (P ≥ 0.05).
Mentions: In the pulp, the cultivar effect was significant (P < 0.05) for all tested variables, except for phloretin-2-O-xyloglucoside and citric acid (Table 5). The management system was only significant for fruit weight, glucose, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, mDP and phloretin-2O-xyloglucoside (Table 5). F-values of cultivar effects were higher than F-values of management system except for (+)-catechin and phloretin-2-O-xyloglucoside. Although system management effects were observed, organic fruits did not necessarily contain higher primary or secondary metabolite contents. Fig 4 shows the values per management system for the few metabolites for which management systems effects were significant (Table 5). Organic fruits had significantly lower content of (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin compared to conventional and low-input samples. However, for phloretin-2-O-xyloglucoside a significantly higher content was found in organic samples compared to the conventional system. The mDP of procyanidins was significantly lower in organic compared to conventional samples. The same trend was observed for glucose presenting highest concentration in the conventional samples compared to both other management systems that did not differ among them. The fruit weight was similar in the low-input and conventional samples, but was significantly lower in the organic samples.

Bottom Line: The main factors affecting primary and secondary metabolites, in both apple skin and flesh, were by far the cultivar and the yearly conditions, while the management system had a very limited effect.When considering the three cultivars and the year 2011 to investigate the effect of the management system per se, only few compounds differed significantly between the three systems and in particular the total phenolic content did not differ significantly between systems.Finally, when considering orchards grown in the same pedoclimatic conditions and of the same age, instead of the usual organic vs. conventional comparison, the effect of the management system on the apple fruit quality (Fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, individual sugars, organic acids, and phenolics) was very limited to non-significant.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: UMR408 Sécurité et Qualité des Produits d'Origine Végétale, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Avignon, France.

ABSTRACT
Many biotic and abiotic parameters affect the metabolites involved in the organoleptic and health value of fruits. It is therefore important to understand how the growers' decisions for cultivar and orchard management can affect the fruit composition. Practices, cultivars and/or year all might participate to determine fruit composition. To hierarchize these factors, fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids contents, titratable acidity, individual sugars and organics acids, and phenolics were measured in three apple cultivars ('Ariane', 'Melrose' and 'Smoothee') managed under organic, low-input and conventional management. Apples were harvested at commercial maturity in the orchards of the cropping system experiment BioREco at INRA Gotheron (Drôme, 26) over the course of three years (2011, 2012 and 2013). The main factors affecting primary and secondary metabolites, in both apple skin and flesh, were by far the cultivar and the yearly conditions, while the management system had a very limited effect. When considering the three cultivars and the year 2011 to investigate the effect of the management system per se, only few compounds differed significantly between the three systems and in particular the total phenolic content did not differ significantly between systems. Finally, when considering orchards grown in the same pedoclimatic conditions and of the same age, instead of the usual organic vs. conventional comparison, the effect of the management system on the apple fruit quality (Fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, individual sugars, organic acids, and phenolics) was very limited to non-significant. The main factors of variation were the cultivar and the year of cropping rather than the cropping system. More generally, as each management system (e.g. conventional, organic…) encompasses a great variability of practices, this highlights the importance of accurately documenting orchard practices and design beside the generic type of management in such studies.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus