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Variation in Rural African Gut Microbiota Is Strongly Correlated with Colonization by Entamoeba and Subsistence.

Morton ER, Lynch J, Froment A, Lafosse S, Heyer E, Przeworski M, Blekhman R, Ségurel L - PLoS Genet. (2015)

Bottom Line: Characterizing the fecal microbiota of Pygmy hunter-gatherers as well as Bantu individuals from both farming and fishing populations in Southwest Cameroon, we found that the gut parasite Entamoeba is significantly correlated with microbiome composition and diversity.We show that across populations, colonization by this protozoa can be predicted with 79% accuracy based on the composition of an individual's gut microbiota, and that several of the taxa most important for distinguishing Entamoeba absence or presence are signature taxa for autoimmune disorders.We also found gut communities to vary significantly with subsistence mode, notably with some taxa previously shown to be enriched in other hunter-gatherers groups (in Tanzania and Peru) also discriminating hunter-gatherers from neighboring farming or fishing populations in Cameroon.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Genetics, Cell Biology, and Development, Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The human gut microbiota is impacted by host nutrition and health status and therefore represents a potentially adaptive phenotype influenced by metabolic and immune constraints. Previous studies contrasting rural populations in developing countries to urban industrialized ones have shown that industrialization is strongly correlated with patterns in human gut microbiota; however, we know little about the relative contribution of factors such as climate, diet, medicine, hygiene practices, host genetics, and parasitism. Here, we focus on fine-scale comparisons of African rural populations in order to (i) contrast the gut microbiota of populations inhabiting similar environments but having different traditional subsistence modes and either shared or distinct genetic ancestry, and (ii) examine the relationship between gut parasites and bacterial communities. Characterizing the fecal microbiota of Pygmy hunter-gatherers as well as Bantu individuals from both farming and fishing populations in Southwest Cameroon, we found that the gut parasite Entamoeba is significantly correlated with microbiome composition and diversity. We show that across populations, colonization by this protozoa can be predicted with 79% accuracy based on the composition of an individual's gut microbiota, and that several of the taxa most important for distinguishing Entamoeba absence or presence are signature taxa for autoimmune disorders. We also found gut communities to vary significantly with subsistence mode, notably with some taxa previously shown to be enriched in other hunter-gatherers groups (in Tanzania and Peru) also discriminating hunter-gatherers from neighboring farming or fishing populations in Cameroon.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

(a) Map showing the geographic locations of the villages sampled in Southwest Cameroon, the number of samples (N) collected for each subsistence group (the fishing population, farmers from the South, farmers from the North, and hunter-gatherers), and their genetic ancestry (Bantu or Pygmy).(b) Principle Components Analysis based on dietary questionnaires for all 64 individuals. The first two principal components (PC1 and PC2) are shown, with the amount of variation explained reported for each axis. Image of Africa is courtesy of NASA/JPL-Caltech.
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pgen.1005658.g001: (a) Map showing the geographic locations of the villages sampled in Southwest Cameroon, the number of samples (N) collected for each subsistence group (the fishing population, farmers from the South, farmers from the North, and hunter-gatherers), and their genetic ancestry (Bantu or Pygmy).(b) Principle Components Analysis based on dietary questionnaires for all 64 individuals. The first two principal components (PC1 and PC2) are shown, with the amount of variation explained reported for each axis. Image of Africa is courtesy of NASA/JPL-Caltech.

Mentions: We analyzed 64 individuals in seven different villages in Southwest Cameroon, corresponding to 20 hunter-gatherers, 24 farmers, and 20 individuals from a fishing population (see Fig 1 and S1 Table). The average age of study participants ranges between 26 and 78 years, with an average age of 50 years. The Pygmy hunter-gatherers diverged from the other Bantu populations about 60,000 years ago [39,40] and the farming subsistence mode likely started over the last 5,000 years [41]. The sampled populations therefore not only have contrasted subsistence modes, but also have different genetic backgrounds.


Variation in Rural African Gut Microbiota Is Strongly Correlated with Colonization by Entamoeba and Subsistence.

Morton ER, Lynch J, Froment A, Lafosse S, Heyer E, Przeworski M, Blekhman R, Ségurel L - PLoS Genet. (2015)

(a) Map showing the geographic locations of the villages sampled in Southwest Cameroon, the number of samples (N) collected for each subsistence group (the fishing population, farmers from the South, farmers from the North, and hunter-gatherers), and their genetic ancestry (Bantu or Pygmy).(b) Principle Components Analysis based on dietary questionnaires for all 64 individuals. The first two principal components (PC1 and PC2) are shown, with the amount of variation explained reported for each axis. Image of Africa is courtesy of NASA/JPL-Caltech.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4664238&req=5

pgen.1005658.g001: (a) Map showing the geographic locations of the villages sampled in Southwest Cameroon, the number of samples (N) collected for each subsistence group (the fishing population, farmers from the South, farmers from the North, and hunter-gatherers), and their genetic ancestry (Bantu or Pygmy).(b) Principle Components Analysis based on dietary questionnaires for all 64 individuals. The first two principal components (PC1 and PC2) are shown, with the amount of variation explained reported for each axis. Image of Africa is courtesy of NASA/JPL-Caltech.
Mentions: We analyzed 64 individuals in seven different villages in Southwest Cameroon, corresponding to 20 hunter-gatherers, 24 farmers, and 20 individuals from a fishing population (see Fig 1 and S1 Table). The average age of study participants ranges between 26 and 78 years, with an average age of 50 years. The Pygmy hunter-gatherers diverged from the other Bantu populations about 60,000 years ago [39,40] and the farming subsistence mode likely started over the last 5,000 years [41]. The sampled populations therefore not only have contrasted subsistence modes, but also have different genetic backgrounds.

Bottom Line: Characterizing the fecal microbiota of Pygmy hunter-gatherers as well as Bantu individuals from both farming and fishing populations in Southwest Cameroon, we found that the gut parasite Entamoeba is significantly correlated with microbiome composition and diversity.We show that across populations, colonization by this protozoa can be predicted with 79% accuracy based on the composition of an individual's gut microbiota, and that several of the taxa most important for distinguishing Entamoeba absence or presence are signature taxa for autoimmune disorders.We also found gut communities to vary significantly with subsistence mode, notably with some taxa previously shown to be enriched in other hunter-gatherers groups (in Tanzania and Peru) also discriminating hunter-gatherers from neighboring farming or fishing populations in Cameroon.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Genetics, Cell Biology, and Development, Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The human gut microbiota is impacted by host nutrition and health status and therefore represents a potentially adaptive phenotype influenced by metabolic and immune constraints. Previous studies contrasting rural populations in developing countries to urban industrialized ones have shown that industrialization is strongly correlated with patterns in human gut microbiota; however, we know little about the relative contribution of factors such as climate, diet, medicine, hygiene practices, host genetics, and parasitism. Here, we focus on fine-scale comparisons of African rural populations in order to (i) contrast the gut microbiota of populations inhabiting similar environments but having different traditional subsistence modes and either shared or distinct genetic ancestry, and (ii) examine the relationship between gut parasites and bacterial communities. Characterizing the fecal microbiota of Pygmy hunter-gatherers as well as Bantu individuals from both farming and fishing populations in Southwest Cameroon, we found that the gut parasite Entamoeba is significantly correlated with microbiome composition and diversity. We show that across populations, colonization by this protozoa can be predicted with 79% accuracy based on the composition of an individual's gut microbiota, and that several of the taxa most important for distinguishing Entamoeba absence or presence are signature taxa for autoimmune disorders. We also found gut communities to vary significantly with subsistence mode, notably with some taxa previously shown to be enriched in other hunter-gatherers groups (in Tanzania and Peru) also discriminating hunter-gatherers from neighboring farming or fishing populations in Cameroon.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus