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The role of infection in miscarriage.

Giakoumelou S, Wheelhouse N, Cuschieri K, Entrican G, Howie SE, Horne AW - Hum. Reprod. Update (2015)

Bottom Line: It is also associated with significant health care costs.Q fever, adeno-associated virus, Bocavirus, Hepatitis C and Mycoplasma genitalium infections do not appear to affect pregnancy outcome.The latest data on rubella and syphilis indicate increased antenatal screening worldwide and a decrease in the frequency of their reported associations with pregnancy failure.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Reproductive Health, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, UK.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Healthy and infected feto–maternal interface. (A) During a healthy pregnancy, the interaction between maternal decidua, vasculature and immune cells (macrophages, uterine natural killer cells and dendritic cells) with fetal trophoblast and syncytial cells is the cornerstone of establishment and progression of pregnancy. Molecules such as interleukin (IL-10), colony stimulating factor (CSF-1) and transforming growth factor-β are essential for trophoblast invasion during the implantation process and are expressed by uterine cells. (B) Infections can disrupt the balance of feto–maternal interactions. Plasmodium falciparum can infect trophoblast cells entering via the maternal bloodstream. Cytomegalovirus and Listeria monocytogenes are examples of viral and bacterial infections known to interfere with trophoblast cells.
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DMV041F3: Healthy and infected feto–maternal interface. (A) During a healthy pregnancy, the interaction between maternal decidua, vasculature and immune cells (macrophages, uterine natural killer cells and dendritic cells) with fetal trophoblast and syncytial cells is the cornerstone of establishment and progression of pregnancy. Molecules such as interleukin (IL-10), colony stimulating factor (CSF-1) and transforming growth factor-β are essential for trophoblast invasion during the implantation process and are expressed by uterine cells. (B) Infections can disrupt the balance of feto–maternal interactions. Plasmodium falciparum can infect trophoblast cells entering via the maternal bloodstream. Cytomegalovirus and Listeria monocytogenes are examples of viral and bacterial infections known to interfere with trophoblast cells.

Mentions: The role of the immune system in a successful pregnancy is crucial (Fig. 3A). Whilst the immune tolerance of the semi-allogeneic fetus is maintained, several components of the immune system fulfil their designated roles in preparation for implantation as well as during gestation (Entrican, 2002; Chaouat et al., 2004). Natural killer (NK) cells, macrophages and dendritic cells have all been detected in the feto–maternal interface (Guleria and Pollard, 2000; Moffett-King, 2002; Gardner and Moffett, 2003). Cytokines such as interleukin (IL-10), colony stimulating factor (CSF-1) and transforming growth factor-β among others have been linked with the implantation process and are expressed in uterine cells (Altman et al., 1990; Guleria and Pollard, 2000; Thaxton and Sharma, 2010). Implantation induces an inflammatory response because of invasion and damage of maternal tissue, with many cells undergoing apoptosis (Jerzak and Bischof, 2002; Joswig et al., 2003). Conversely, inflammatory cytokines such as interferon-γ and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) are not usually expressed in the placenta and have been associated with abortion in mouse models (Entrican, 2002).Figure 3


The role of infection in miscarriage.

Giakoumelou S, Wheelhouse N, Cuschieri K, Entrican G, Howie SE, Horne AW - Hum. Reprod. Update (2015)

Healthy and infected feto–maternal interface. (A) During a healthy pregnancy, the interaction between maternal decidua, vasculature and immune cells (macrophages, uterine natural killer cells and dendritic cells) with fetal trophoblast and syncytial cells is the cornerstone of establishment and progression of pregnancy. Molecules such as interleukin (IL-10), colony stimulating factor (CSF-1) and transforming growth factor-β are essential for trophoblast invasion during the implantation process and are expressed by uterine cells. (B) Infections can disrupt the balance of feto–maternal interactions. Plasmodium falciparum can infect trophoblast cells entering via the maternal bloodstream. Cytomegalovirus and Listeria monocytogenes are examples of viral and bacterial infections known to interfere with trophoblast cells.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4664130&req=5

DMV041F3: Healthy and infected feto–maternal interface. (A) During a healthy pregnancy, the interaction between maternal decidua, vasculature and immune cells (macrophages, uterine natural killer cells and dendritic cells) with fetal trophoblast and syncytial cells is the cornerstone of establishment and progression of pregnancy. Molecules such as interleukin (IL-10), colony stimulating factor (CSF-1) and transforming growth factor-β are essential for trophoblast invasion during the implantation process and are expressed by uterine cells. (B) Infections can disrupt the balance of feto–maternal interactions. Plasmodium falciparum can infect trophoblast cells entering via the maternal bloodstream. Cytomegalovirus and Listeria monocytogenes are examples of viral and bacterial infections known to interfere with trophoblast cells.
Mentions: The role of the immune system in a successful pregnancy is crucial (Fig. 3A). Whilst the immune tolerance of the semi-allogeneic fetus is maintained, several components of the immune system fulfil their designated roles in preparation for implantation as well as during gestation (Entrican, 2002; Chaouat et al., 2004). Natural killer (NK) cells, macrophages and dendritic cells have all been detected in the feto–maternal interface (Guleria and Pollard, 2000; Moffett-King, 2002; Gardner and Moffett, 2003). Cytokines such as interleukin (IL-10), colony stimulating factor (CSF-1) and transforming growth factor-β among others have been linked with the implantation process and are expressed in uterine cells (Altman et al., 1990; Guleria and Pollard, 2000; Thaxton and Sharma, 2010). Implantation induces an inflammatory response because of invasion and damage of maternal tissue, with many cells undergoing apoptosis (Jerzak and Bischof, 2002; Joswig et al., 2003). Conversely, inflammatory cytokines such as interferon-γ and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) are not usually expressed in the placenta and have been associated with abortion in mouse models (Entrican, 2002).Figure 3

Bottom Line: It is also associated with significant health care costs.Q fever, adeno-associated virus, Bocavirus, Hepatitis C and Mycoplasma genitalium infections do not appear to affect pregnancy outcome.The latest data on rubella and syphilis indicate increased antenatal screening worldwide and a decrease in the frequency of their reported associations with pregnancy failure.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Reproductive Health, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, UK.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus