The role of infection in miscarriage.
Bottom Line: It is also associated with significant health care costs.Q fever, adeno-associated virus, Bocavirus, Hepatitis C and Mycoplasma genitalium infections do not appear to affect pregnancy outcome.The latest data on rubella and syphilis indicate increased antenatal screening worldwide and a decrease in the frequency of their reported associations with pregnancy failure.
Affiliation: Centre for Reproductive Health, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, UK.Show MeSH
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Mentions: The role of the immune system in a successful pregnancy is crucial (Fig. 3A). Whilst the immune tolerance of the semi-allogeneic fetus is maintained, several components of the immune system fulfil their designated roles in preparation for implantation as well as during gestation (Entrican, 2002; Chaouat et al., 2004). Natural killer (NK) cells, macrophages and dendritic cells have all been detected in the feto–maternal interface (Guleria and Pollard, 2000; Moffett-King, 2002; Gardner and Moffett, 2003). Cytokines such as interleukin (IL-10), colony stimulating factor (CSF-1) and transforming growth factor-β among others have been linked with the implantation process and are expressed in uterine cells (Altman et al., 1990; Guleria and Pollard, 2000; Thaxton and Sharma, 2010). Implantation induces an inflammatory response because of invasion and damage of maternal tissue, with many cells undergoing apoptosis (Jerzak and Bischof, 2002; Joswig et al., 2003). Conversely, inflammatory cytokines such as interferon-γ and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) are not usually expressed in the placenta and have been associated with abortion in mouse models (Entrican, 2002).Figure 3
Affiliation: Centre for Reproductive Health, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, UK.