The role of infection in miscarriage.
Bottom Line: It is also associated with significant health care costs.Q fever, adeno-associated virus, Bocavirus, Hepatitis C and Mycoplasma genitalium infections do not appear to affect pregnancy outcome.The latest data on rubella and syphilis indicate increased antenatal screening worldwide and a decrease in the frequency of their reported associations with pregnancy failure.
Affiliation: Centre for Reproductive Health, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, UK.Show MeSH
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Mentions: For the purposes of this review ‘miscarriage’ is defined as the spontaneous loss of a pregnancy during the first 24 weeks of gestation (Fig. 1). For most women, a miscarriage is an individual event and will be followed by a successful pregnancy (‘spontaneous miscarriage’, termed ‘miscarriage’ from this point onwards). A small number (0.5–1%) of women wishing to have children may experience three or more successive miscarriages, a condition known as ‘recurrent miscarriage’ (Bulletti et al., 1996). ‘Early miscarriage’ is defined as pregnancy loss during the first trimester of pregnancy (less than 12 weeks of gestation) and occurs in up to one in five pregnancies. ‘Late miscarriage’ occurs during the second trimester (12–24 weeks of gestation) and is less common, occurring in 1–2% of pregnancies (Hay, 2004). Fetal death from the 25th week of gestation onwards is defined as stillbirth, an outcome taken into consideration in some of the studies included here, however it is not the main focus of this review.Figure 1
Affiliation: Centre for Reproductive Health, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, UK.