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Detection of antibodies against Chlamydophila abortus in Costa Rican sheep flocks.

Villagra-Blanco R, Dolz G, Montero-Caballero D, Romero-Zúñiga JJ - Open Vet J (2015)

Bottom Line: Seropositive animals were found in all analyzed regions (Central, Chorotega, Atlantic Huetar, North Huetar and Central Pacific) determining prevalence between 0.28% and 4.4%, and intra-flock positivity between 3.7% and 25.0%.The survey revealed two risk factors associated with seropositivity; introducing animals (males and females), embryos, or semen from other farms or from abroad without any sanitary certification, and flocks not having quarantine areas or separated boxes for diseased animals.Further studies, to isolate the bacteria are required.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Programa de Investigación en Medicina Poblacional, Escuela de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional (UNA), P.O. Box 86-3000 Heredia, Costa Rica.

ABSTRACT
A total of 359 sheep samples from 15 flocks were analyzed for the presence of antibodies against Chlamydophila abortus using a commercial Enzyme linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Antibodies were detected in 19 (5.29%) sheep from 12 (80%) flocks. Seropositive animals were found in all analyzed regions (Central, Chorotega, Atlantic Huetar, North Huetar and Central Pacific) determining prevalence between 0.28% and 4.4%, and intra-flock positivity between 3.7% and 25.0%. The survey revealed two risk factors associated with seropositivity; introducing animals (males and females), embryos, or semen from other farms or from abroad without any sanitary certification, and flocks not having quarantine areas or separated boxes for diseased animals. No clinical signs of disease were observed in positive seroreactors. C. abortus seems to be present in Costa Rica in a very low prevalence in sheep flocks. Further studies, to isolate the bacteria are required. Finally, implementation of control measures to prevent the spread of C. abortus is recommended.

No MeSH data available.


Location of the participating flocks with C. abortus seropositive sheep (black dots) and seronegative animals (white dots) within five regions of Costa Rica.
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Figure 1: Location of the participating flocks with C. abortus seropositive sheep (black dots) and seronegative animals (white dots) within five regions of Costa Rica.

Mentions: The sample size was calculated with an estimated population of 25,000 animals distributed in 138 sheep flocks in Costa Rica (1.0% overall expected prevalence, 95.0% confidence level), yielding a total of 300 samples to analyze. A total of 359 animals from 15 farms were tested. Within each flock, the number of animals to be sampled was calculated to determine presence or absence of C. abortus based on a 10.0% expected prevalence inside each flock (Kemmerling et al., 2009: Lensko et al., 2011), 95.0% confidence level and using the formula described by Cannon and Roe (1982). The flocks were distributed as follows: Seven in the Central region (46.0%), two in the Chorotega region (13.5%), two in the Central Pacific region (13.5%), two in the North Huetar region (13.5%) and two in the Atlantic Huetar region (13.5%). The Brunca region was not analyzed, since it was not possible to find farms willing to participate in this study. However, less than 10% of animals were registered in this region (Fig. 1).


Detection of antibodies against Chlamydophila abortus in Costa Rican sheep flocks.

Villagra-Blanco R, Dolz G, Montero-Caballero D, Romero-Zúñiga JJ - Open Vet J (2015)

Location of the participating flocks with C. abortus seropositive sheep (black dots) and seronegative animals (white dots) within five regions of Costa Rica.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4663808&req=5

Figure 1: Location of the participating flocks with C. abortus seropositive sheep (black dots) and seronegative animals (white dots) within five regions of Costa Rica.
Mentions: The sample size was calculated with an estimated population of 25,000 animals distributed in 138 sheep flocks in Costa Rica (1.0% overall expected prevalence, 95.0% confidence level), yielding a total of 300 samples to analyze. A total of 359 animals from 15 farms were tested. Within each flock, the number of animals to be sampled was calculated to determine presence or absence of C. abortus based on a 10.0% expected prevalence inside each flock (Kemmerling et al., 2009: Lensko et al., 2011), 95.0% confidence level and using the formula described by Cannon and Roe (1982). The flocks were distributed as follows: Seven in the Central region (46.0%), two in the Chorotega region (13.5%), two in the Central Pacific region (13.5%), two in the North Huetar region (13.5%) and two in the Atlantic Huetar region (13.5%). The Brunca region was not analyzed, since it was not possible to find farms willing to participate in this study. However, less than 10% of animals were registered in this region (Fig. 1).

Bottom Line: Seropositive animals were found in all analyzed regions (Central, Chorotega, Atlantic Huetar, North Huetar and Central Pacific) determining prevalence between 0.28% and 4.4%, and intra-flock positivity between 3.7% and 25.0%.The survey revealed two risk factors associated with seropositivity; introducing animals (males and females), embryos, or semen from other farms or from abroad without any sanitary certification, and flocks not having quarantine areas or separated boxes for diseased animals.Further studies, to isolate the bacteria are required.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Programa de Investigación en Medicina Poblacional, Escuela de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional (UNA), P.O. Box 86-3000 Heredia, Costa Rica.

ABSTRACT
A total of 359 sheep samples from 15 flocks were analyzed for the presence of antibodies against Chlamydophila abortus using a commercial Enzyme linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Antibodies were detected in 19 (5.29%) sheep from 12 (80%) flocks. Seropositive animals were found in all analyzed regions (Central, Chorotega, Atlantic Huetar, North Huetar and Central Pacific) determining prevalence between 0.28% and 4.4%, and intra-flock positivity between 3.7% and 25.0%. The survey revealed two risk factors associated with seropositivity; introducing animals (males and females), embryos, or semen from other farms or from abroad without any sanitary certification, and flocks not having quarantine areas or separated boxes for diseased animals. No clinical signs of disease were observed in positive seroreactors. C. abortus seems to be present in Costa Rica in a very low prevalence in sheep flocks. Further studies, to isolate the bacteria are required. Finally, implementation of control measures to prevent the spread of C. abortus is recommended.

No MeSH data available.