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The impact of primary healthcare reform on equity of utilization of services in the province of Quebec: a 2003-2010 follow-up.

Ouimet MJ, Pineault R, Prud'homme A, Provost S, Fournier M, Levesque JF - Int J Equity Health (2015)

Bottom Line: Compared with the lowest SES, highest SES is associated with less emergency room visits (OR 0.80) and higher likelihood of at least one visit to a PHC facility (OR 2.17), but lower likelihood of frequent visits to PHC (OR 0.69), and higher affiliation to a family doctor (OR 2.04).New models of PHC organizations do not appear to have improved equity.We believe that an equity-focused approach is needed in order to address persisting inequities.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Direction de la santé publique du CIUSSS du Centre-Sud-de-l'Île-de-Montréal, 1301 Sherbrooke est, Montréal, Québec, H2L 1M3, Canada. mouimet@santepub-mtl.qc.ca.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In 2003, the Quebec government made important changes in its primary healthcare (PHC) system. This reform included the creation of new models of PHC, Family Medicine Groups (e.g. multidisciplinary health teams with extended opening hours and enrolment of patients) and Network Clinics (clinics providing access to investigation and specialist services). Considering that equity is one of the guiding principles of the Quebec health system, our objectives are to assess the impact of the PHC reform on equity by examining the association between socio-economic status (SES) and utilization of healthcare services between 2003 and 2010; and to determine how the organizational model of PHC facilities impacts utilization of services according to SES.

Methods: We held population surveys in 2005 (n = 9206) and 2010 (n = 9180) in the two most populated regions of Quebec province, relating to utilization and experience of care during the preceding two years, as well as organizational surveys of all PHC facilities. We performed multiple logistical regression analyses comparing levels of SES for different utilization variables, controlling for morbidity and perceived health; we repeated the analyses, this time including type of PHC facility (older vs newer models).

Results: Compared with the lowest SES, highest SES is associated with less emergency room visits (OR 0.80) and higher likelihood of at least one visit to a PHC facility (OR 2.17), but lower likelihood of frequent visits to PHC (OR 0.69), and higher affiliation to a family doctor (OR 2.04). Differences remained stable between the 2005 and 2010 samples except for likelihood of visit to PHC source which deteriorated for the lowest SES. Greater improvement in affiliation to family doctor was seen for the lowest SES in older models of PHC organizations, but a deterioration was seen for that same group in newer models.

Conclusions: Differences favoring the rich in affiliation to family doctor and likelihood of visit to PHC facility likely represent inequities in access to PHC which remained stable or deteriorated after the reform. New models of PHC organizations do not appear to have improved equity. We believe that an equity-focused approach is needed in order to address persisting inequities.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Conceptual framework
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Fig1: Conceptual framework

Mentions: We first examined the association of SES with different outcomes representing utilization of health services, while controlling for socio-demographic and health status variables (detailed below), for both survey years (2005 and 2010). We tested all relevant variables according to our conceptual framework [46] (Fig. 1), within the limitations of available data. We selected variables that were statistically significantly associated with at least one outcome in bivariate analysis and performed multiple logistical analyses using STATA version 10.0 with all respondents (n = 18386) using the variables below. Analyses were made for 2005 and 2010 jointly, and interaction terms between year and SES were created in order to detect differential responses between economic groups. Need variables (morbidity and perceived health) were modelled as mediator variables in our final models, as shown in our conceptual framework [45, 46].Fig. 1


The impact of primary healthcare reform on equity of utilization of services in the province of Quebec: a 2003-2010 follow-up.

Ouimet MJ, Pineault R, Prud'homme A, Provost S, Fournier M, Levesque JF - Int J Equity Health (2015)

Conceptual framework
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4663731&req=5

Fig1: Conceptual framework
Mentions: We first examined the association of SES with different outcomes representing utilization of health services, while controlling for socio-demographic and health status variables (detailed below), for both survey years (2005 and 2010). We tested all relevant variables according to our conceptual framework [46] (Fig. 1), within the limitations of available data. We selected variables that were statistically significantly associated with at least one outcome in bivariate analysis and performed multiple logistical analyses using STATA version 10.0 with all respondents (n = 18386) using the variables below. Analyses were made for 2005 and 2010 jointly, and interaction terms between year and SES were created in order to detect differential responses between economic groups. Need variables (morbidity and perceived health) were modelled as mediator variables in our final models, as shown in our conceptual framework [45, 46].Fig. 1

Bottom Line: Compared with the lowest SES, highest SES is associated with less emergency room visits (OR 0.80) and higher likelihood of at least one visit to a PHC facility (OR 2.17), but lower likelihood of frequent visits to PHC (OR 0.69), and higher affiliation to a family doctor (OR 2.04).New models of PHC organizations do not appear to have improved equity.We believe that an equity-focused approach is needed in order to address persisting inequities.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Direction de la santé publique du CIUSSS du Centre-Sud-de-l'Île-de-Montréal, 1301 Sherbrooke est, Montréal, Québec, H2L 1M3, Canada. mouimet@santepub-mtl.qc.ca.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In 2003, the Quebec government made important changes in its primary healthcare (PHC) system. This reform included the creation of new models of PHC, Family Medicine Groups (e.g. multidisciplinary health teams with extended opening hours and enrolment of patients) and Network Clinics (clinics providing access to investigation and specialist services). Considering that equity is one of the guiding principles of the Quebec health system, our objectives are to assess the impact of the PHC reform on equity by examining the association between socio-economic status (SES) and utilization of healthcare services between 2003 and 2010; and to determine how the organizational model of PHC facilities impacts utilization of services according to SES.

Methods: We held population surveys in 2005 (n = 9206) and 2010 (n = 9180) in the two most populated regions of Quebec province, relating to utilization and experience of care during the preceding two years, as well as organizational surveys of all PHC facilities. We performed multiple logistical regression analyses comparing levels of SES for different utilization variables, controlling for morbidity and perceived health; we repeated the analyses, this time including type of PHC facility (older vs newer models).

Results: Compared with the lowest SES, highest SES is associated with less emergency room visits (OR 0.80) and higher likelihood of at least one visit to a PHC facility (OR 2.17), but lower likelihood of frequent visits to PHC (OR 0.69), and higher affiliation to a family doctor (OR 2.04). Differences remained stable between the 2005 and 2010 samples except for likelihood of visit to PHC source which deteriorated for the lowest SES. Greater improvement in affiliation to family doctor was seen for the lowest SES in older models of PHC organizations, but a deterioration was seen for that same group in newer models.

Conclusions: Differences favoring the rich in affiliation to family doctor and likelihood of visit to PHC facility likely represent inequities in access to PHC which remained stable or deteriorated after the reform. New models of PHC organizations do not appear to have improved equity. We believe that an equity-focused approach is needed in order to address persisting inequities.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus