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Fragmented mitochondrial genomes in two suborders of parasitic lice of eutherian mammals (Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina, Insecta).

Shao R, Barker SC, Li H, Song S, Poudel S, Su Y - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: The typical animal mitochondrial (mt) genome organization, which consists of a single chromosome with 37 genes, was found in chewing lice in the suborders Amblycera and Ischnocera.Each minichromosome is 3.5-4.2 kb in size and has 2-6 genes.Our results indicate that mt genome fragmentation is shared by the suborders Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: GeneCology Research Centre, Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore, Queensland 4556, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Parasitic lice (order Phthiraptera) infest birds and mammals. The typical animal mitochondrial (mt) genome organization, which consists of a single chromosome with 37 genes, was found in chewing lice in the suborders Amblycera and Ischnocera. The sucking lice (suborder Anoplura) known, however, have fragmented mt genomes with 9-20 minichromosomes. We sequenced the mt genome of the elephant louse, Haematomyzus elephantis - the first species of chewing lice investigated from the suborder Rhynchophthirina. We identified 33 mt genes in the elephant louse, which were on 10 minichromosomes. Each minichromosome is 3.5-4.2 kb in size and has 2-6 genes. Phylogenetic analyses of mt genome sequences confirm that the elephant louse is more closely related to sucking lice than to the chewing lice in the Amblycera and Ischnocera. Our results indicate that mt genome fragmentation is shared by the suborders Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina. Nine of the 10 mt minichromosomes of the elephant louse differ from those of the sucking lice (Anoplura) known in gene content and gene arrangement, indicating that distinct mt karyotypes have evolved in Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina since they diverged ~92 million years ago.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Comparison of mitochondrial gene arrangement between the elephant louse, Haematomyzus elephantis, and other parasitic lice.The phylogenetic tree is consistent with that shown in Fig. 5. The black dot on the tree indicates the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) shared by species of the two suborders, Rhynchophthirina and Anoplura. nad5, rrnS and rrnL genes of the elephant louse and sucking lice are highlighted with asterisks; each of these genes has its own minichromosomes, not shared with other protein-coding genes or rRNA genes. trnT, nad1 and trnQ genes are highlighted in bold red. The ancestral gene-arrangements of insects retained in the elephant louse are in bold green; the derived gene-arrangements of insects present in the elephant louse and shared by other parasitic lice are in bold black. Hyphens link neighboring genes on the same minichromosome; commas separate minichromosomes.
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f6: Comparison of mitochondrial gene arrangement between the elephant louse, Haematomyzus elephantis, and other parasitic lice.The phylogenetic tree is consistent with that shown in Fig. 5. The black dot on the tree indicates the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) shared by species of the two suborders, Rhynchophthirina and Anoplura. nad5, rrnS and rrnL genes of the elephant louse and sucking lice are highlighted with asterisks; each of these genes has its own minichromosomes, not shared with other protein-coding genes or rRNA genes. trnT, nad1 and trnQ genes are highlighted in bold red. The ancestral gene-arrangements of insects retained in the elephant louse are in bold green; the derived gene-arrangements of insects present in the elephant louse and shared by other parasitic lice are in bold black. Hyphens link neighboring genes on the same minichromosome; commas separate minichromosomes.

Mentions: The sister-group relationship between the suborder Anoplura (sucking lice) and the suborder Rhynchophthirina (elephant louse, wart-hog louse and red-river hog louse) indicated above by mt genome sequence analyses and derived gene-arrangement characters is consistent with the phylogeny inferred previously by morphological and molecular analyses151617181920. Furthermore, Light et al.20 and Smith et al.21 dated the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina to be ~92 million years old. The species from Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina investigated to date all have fragmented minichromosomes. Thus, the most plausible explanation is that fragmented mt genomes were already present in the MRCA of Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina, and all species of these two suborders retained this novel mt genome organization (Fig. 6). Cameron et al. reported three minicircles with six mt genes in a Damalinia species (Trichodectidae, Ischnocera)6, indicating that fragmented mt genomes may be present in parasitic lice outside Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina. The exact origin of fragmented mt genomes in parasitic lice remains to be determined with more and wider sampling of species from the suborders Ischnocera and Amblycera.


Fragmented mitochondrial genomes in two suborders of parasitic lice of eutherian mammals (Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina, Insecta).

Shao R, Barker SC, Li H, Song S, Poudel S, Su Y - Sci Rep (2015)

Comparison of mitochondrial gene arrangement between the elephant louse, Haematomyzus elephantis, and other parasitic lice.The phylogenetic tree is consistent with that shown in Fig. 5. The black dot on the tree indicates the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) shared by species of the two suborders, Rhynchophthirina and Anoplura. nad5, rrnS and rrnL genes of the elephant louse and sucking lice are highlighted with asterisks; each of these genes has its own minichromosomes, not shared with other protein-coding genes or rRNA genes. trnT, nad1 and trnQ genes are highlighted in bold red. The ancestral gene-arrangements of insects retained in the elephant louse are in bold green; the derived gene-arrangements of insects present in the elephant louse and shared by other parasitic lice are in bold black. Hyphens link neighboring genes on the same minichromosome; commas separate minichromosomes.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4663631&req=5

f6: Comparison of mitochondrial gene arrangement between the elephant louse, Haematomyzus elephantis, and other parasitic lice.The phylogenetic tree is consistent with that shown in Fig. 5. The black dot on the tree indicates the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) shared by species of the two suborders, Rhynchophthirina and Anoplura. nad5, rrnS and rrnL genes of the elephant louse and sucking lice are highlighted with asterisks; each of these genes has its own minichromosomes, not shared with other protein-coding genes or rRNA genes. trnT, nad1 and trnQ genes are highlighted in bold red. The ancestral gene-arrangements of insects retained in the elephant louse are in bold green; the derived gene-arrangements of insects present in the elephant louse and shared by other parasitic lice are in bold black. Hyphens link neighboring genes on the same minichromosome; commas separate minichromosomes.
Mentions: The sister-group relationship between the suborder Anoplura (sucking lice) and the suborder Rhynchophthirina (elephant louse, wart-hog louse and red-river hog louse) indicated above by mt genome sequence analyses and derived gene-arrangement characters is consistent with the phylogeny inferred previously by morphological and molecular analyses151617181920. Furthermore, Light et al.20 and Smith et al.21 dated the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina to be ~92 million years old. The species from Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina investigated to date all have fragmented minichromosomes. Thus, the most plausible explanation is that fragmented mt genomes were already present in the MRCA of Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina, and all species of these two suborders retained this novel mt genome organization (Fig. 6). Cameron et al. reported three minicircles with six mt genes in a Damalinia species (Trichodectidae, Ischnocera)6, indicating that fragmented mt genomes may be present in parasitic lice outside Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina. The exact origin of fragmented mt genomes in parasitic lice remains to be determined with more and wider sampling of species from the suborders Ischnocera and Amblycera.

Bottom Line: The typical animal mitochondrial (mt) genome organization, which consists of a single chromosome with 37 genes, was found in chewing lice in the suborders Amblycera and Ischnocera.Each minichromosome is 3.5-4.2 kb in size and has 2-6 genes.Our results indicate that mt genome fragmentation is shared by the suborders Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: GeneCology Research Centre, Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore, Queensland 4556, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Parasitic lice (order Phthiraptera) infest birds and mammals. The typical animal mitochondrial (mt) genome organization, which consists of a single chromosome with 37 genes, was found in chewing lice in the suborders Amblycera and Ischnocera. The sucking lice (suborder Anoplura) known, however, have fragmented mt genomes with 9-20 minichromosomes. We sequenced the mt genome of the elephant louse, Haematomyzus elephantis - the first species of chewing lice investigated from the suborder Rhynchophthirina. We identified 33 mt genes in the elephant louse, which were on 10 minichromosomes. Each minichromosome is 3.5-4.2 kb in size and has 2-6 genes. Phylogenetic analyses of mt genome sequences confirm that the elephant louse is more closely related to sucking lice than to the chewing lice in the Amblycera and Ischnocera. Our results indicate that mt genome fragmentation is shared by the suborders Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina. Nine of the 10 mt minichromosomes of the elephant louse differ from those of the sucking lice (Anoplura) known in gene content and gene arrangement, indicating that distinct mt karyotypes have evolved in Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina since they diverged ~92 million years ago.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus