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Fragmented mitochondrial genomes in two suborders of parasitic lice of eutherian mammals (Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina, Insecta).

Shao R, Barker SC, Li H, Song S, Poudel S, Su Y - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: The typical animal mitochondrial (mt) genome organization, which consists of a single chromosome with 37 genes, was found in chewing lice in the suborders Amblycera and Ischnocera.Each minichromosome is 3.5-4.2 kb in size and has 2-6 genes.Our results indicate that mt genome fragmentation is shared by the suborders Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: GeneCology Research Centre, Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore, Queensland 4556, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Parasitic lice (order Phthiraptera) infest birds and mammals. The typical animal mitochondrial (mt) genome organization, which consists of a single chromosome with 37 genes, was found in chewing lice in the suborders Amblycera and Ischnocera. The sucking lice (suborder Anoplura) known, however, have fragmented mt genomes with 9-20 minichromosomes. We sequenced the mt genome of the elephant louse, Haematomyzus elephantis - the first species of chewing lice investigated from the suborder Rhynchophthirina. We identified 33 mt genes in the elephant louse, which were on 10 minichromosomes. Each minichromosome is 3.5-4.2 kb in size and has 2-6 genes. Phylogenetic analyses of mt genome sequences confirm that the elephant louse is more closely related to sucking lice than to the chewing lice in the Amblycera and Ischnocera. Our results indicate that mt genome fragmentation is shared by the suborders Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina. Nine of the 10 mt minichromosomes of the elephant louse differ from those of the sucking lice (Anoplura) known in gene content and gene arrangement, indicating that distinct mt karyotypes have evolved in Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina since they diverged ~92 million years ago.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Phylogenetic relationship of the elephant louse to other parasitic lice (Phthiraptera), booklice and barklice (Psocoptera).The tree was constructed using Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods with concatenated sequences of the first and second codon positions of 11 mitochondrial (mt) protein-coding genes and two mt rRNA genes (6,850 nucleotides). Posterior probability and bootstrap support value (%) for each grouping were indicated near the branch nodes. Trees were rooted with the true bug, Alloeorhynchus bakeri. Drawing of insects was by Hu Li.
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f5: Phylogenetic relationship of the elephant louse to other parasitic lice (Phthiraptera), booklice and barklice (Psocoptera).The tree was constructed using Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods with concatenated sequences of the first and second codon positions of 11 mitochondrial (mt) protein-coding genes and two mt rRNA genes (6,850 nucleotides). Posterior probability and bootstrap support value (%) for each grouping were indicated near the branch nodes. Trees were rooted with the true bug, Alloeorhynchus bakeri. Drawing of insects was by Hu Li.

Mentions: The elephant louse, Haematomyzus elephantis, together with the African wart-hog louse, Haematomyzus hopkinsi, and the African red-river hog louse, Haematomyzus porci, differ markedly from other parasitic lice in morphology and thus are in a suborder of their own, Rhyncophthirina14. We used maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) methods and generated eight phylogenetic trees in total with concatenated sequences of: 1) 11 mt protein-coding genes (Alignment S6); 2) the first and second codon positions of the 11 mt protein-coding genes (Alignment S7); 3) the 11 mt protein-coding genes and the two mt rRNA genes (Alignment S8); and 4) the first and second codon positions of the 11 mt protein-coding genes and the two mt rRNA genes (Alignment S9; also see Method below). In all of the eight trees, the elephant louse (suborder Rhyncophthirina) was placed as the sister group to the seven species of sucking lice (suborder Anoplura) (Fig. 5; Fig. S3). The monophyly of Anoplura and the sister-group relationship between Anoplura and Rhyncophthirina (represented by the elephant louse in the current study) were strongly supported in all of the trees with bootstrap support values (BSV) 97–100% and posterior probabilities (PP) 1. The suborder Ischnocera was paraphyletic: one of its species, Bothriometopus macrocnemis (screamer louse), was more closely related to Anoplura + Rhyncophthirina than to the other two ischnoceran species (BSV 62–88%, PP 0.88–1). The monophyly of the parasitic lice (order Phthiraptera) was supported in six of the eight trees (PCGRNA_ML, PCGRNA_BA, PCG12_ML, PCG12_BA, PCG12RNA_ML, PCG12RNA_BA; BSV 72–79%, PP 0.97–1). The monophyly of the barklice and booklice (order Psocoptera) was strongly rejected in all of the eight trees as the booklouse Liposcelis bostrychophila was more closely related to the parasitic lice than to the barklice (BSV 100%, PP 1). The sister-group relationship between Anoplura and Rhyncophthirina was also supported by four shared characters of mt gene arrangement: L1-rrnL, L2-rrnS, T-nad1-Q and rrnL-V (Table 3). These characters are derived for insects and present only in the elephant louse and the sucking lice, not in other parasitic lice, nor in other insects.


Fragmented mitochondrial genomes in two suborders of parasitic lice of eutherian mammals (Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina, Insecta).

Shao R, Barker SC, Li H, Song S, Poudel S, Su Y - Sci Rep (2015)

Phylogenetic relationship of the elephant louse to other parasitic lice (Phthiraptera), booklice and barklice (Psocoptera).The tree was constructed using Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods with concatenated sequences of the first and second codon positions of 11 mitochondrial (mt) protein-coding genes and two mt rRNA genes (6,850 nucleotides). Posterior probability and bootstrap support value (%) for each grouping were indicated near the branch nodes. Trees were rooted with the true bug, Alloeorhynchus bakeri. Drawing of insects was by Hu Li.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4663631&req=5

f5: Phylogenetic relationship of the elephant louse to other parasitic lice (Phthiraptera), booklice and barklice (Psocoptera).The tree was constructed using Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods with concatenated sequences of the first and second codon positions of 11 mitochondrial (mt) protein-coding genes and two mt rRNA genes (6,850 nucleotides). Posterior probability and bootstrap support value (%) for each grouping were indicated near the branch nodes. Trees were rooted with the true bug, Alloeorhynchus bakeri. Drawing of insects was by Hu Li.
Mentions: The elephant louse, Haematomyzus elephantis, together with the African wart-hog louse, Haematomyzus hopkinsi, and the African red-river hog louse, Haematomyzus porci, differ markedly from other parasitic lice in morphology and thus are in a suborder of their own, Rhyncophthirina14. We used maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) methods and generated eight phylogenetic trees in total with concatenated sequences of: 1) 11 mt protein-coding genes (Alignment S6); 2) the first and second codon positions of the 11 mt protein-coding genes (Alignment S7); 3) the 11 mt protein-coding genes and the two mt rRNA genes (Alignment S8); and 4) the first and second codon positions of the 11 mt protein-coding genes and the two mt rRNA genes (Alignment S9; also see Method below). In all of the eight trees, the elephant louse (suborder Rhyncophthirina) was placed as the sister group to the seven species of sucking lice (suborder Anoplura) (Fig. 5; Fig. S3). The monophyly of Anoplura and the sister-group relationship between Anoplura and Rhyncophthirina (represented by the elephant louse in the current study) were strongly supported in all of the trees with bootstrap support values (BSV) 97–100% and posterior probabilities (PP) 1. The suborder Ischnocera was paraphyletic: one of its species, Bothriometopus macrocnemis (screamer louse), was more closely related to Anoplura + Rhyncophthirina than to the other two ischnoceran species (BSV 62–88%, PP 0.88–1). The monophyly of the parasitic lice (order Phthiraptera) was supported in six of the eight trees (PCGRNA_ML, PCGRNA_BA, PCG12_ML, PCG12_BA, PCG12RNA_ML, PCG12RNA_BA; BSV 72–79%, PP 0.97–1). The monophyly of the barklice and booklice (order Psocoptera) was strongly rejected in all of the eight trees as the booklouse Liposcelis bostrychophila was more closely related to the parasitic lice than to the barklice (BSV 100%, PP 1). The sister-group relationship between Anoplura and Rhyncophthirina was also supported by four shared characters of mt gene arrangement: L1-rrnL, L2-rrnS, T-nad1-Q and rrnL-V (Table 3). These characters are derived for insects and present only in the elephant louse and the sucking lice, not in other parasitic lice, nor in other insects.

Bottom Line: The typical animal mitochondrial (mt) genome organization, which consists of a single chromosome with 37 genes, was found in chewing lice in the suborders Amblycera and Ischnocera.Each minichromosome is 3.5-4.2 kb in size and has 2-6 genes.Our results indicate that mt genome fragmentation is shared by the suborders Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: GeneCology Research Centre, Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore, Queensland 4556, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Parasitic lice (order Phthiraptera) infest birds and mammals. The typical animal mitochondrial (mt) genome organization, which consists of a single chromosome with 37 genes, was found in chewing lice in the suborders Amblycera and Ischnocera. The sucking lice (suborder Anoplura) known, however, have fragmented mt genomes with 9-20 minichromosomes. We sequenced the mt genome of the elephant louse, Haematomyzus elephantis - the first species of chewing lice investigated from the suborder Rhynchophthirina. We identified 33 mt genes in the elephant louse, which were on 10 minichromosomes. Each minichromosome is 3.5-4.2 kb in size and has 2-6 genes. Phylogenetic analyses of mt genome sequences confirm that the elephant louse is more closely related to sucking lice than to the chewing lice in the Amblycera and Ischnocera. Our results indicate that mt genome fragmentation is shared by the suborders Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina. Nine of the 10 mt minichromosomes of the elephant louse differ from those of the sucking lice (Anoplura) known in gene content and gene arrangement, indicating that distinct mt karyotypes have evolved in Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina since they diverged ~92 million years ago.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus