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Intakes of Calcium and Phosphorus and Calculated Calcium-to-Phosphorus Ratios of Older Adults: NHANES 2005-2006 Data.

Adatorwovor R, Roggenkamp K, Anderson JJ - Nutrients (2015)

Bottom Line: This investigation was undertaken to examine Ca and P intakes and the resulting Ca:P ratios (by mass) across gender and older adult age groups, using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2006.Mean Ca and P intakes demonstrated lower intakes of Ca and higher intakes of P compared to current Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs).Additional amounts of chemical P additives in the food supply may actually reduce even further the Ca:P ratios of older adults of both genders, but, without P additive data from the food industry, calculation of more precise ratios from NHANES 2005-2006 data is not possible.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departments of Biostatistics, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7461, USA. radat223@email.unc.edu.

ABSTRACT

Background: High intakes of dietary phosphorus (P), relative to calcium (Ca) intake, are associated with a lower calcium:phosphorus ratio (Ca:P) ratio which potentially has adverse health effects, including arterial calcification, bone loss, and death. A substantial percentage of older adults (50 to 70 and 71 plus years) who have a higher risk of fracture rate than younger adults typically have low intakes of dietary Ca that are dominated by higher intakes of dietary P from natural and fortified foods, and lower Ca:P ratios than desirable.

Objective: This investigation was undertaken to examine Ca and P intakes and the resulting Ca:P ratios (by mass) across gender and older adult age groups, using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2006.

Design: NHANES data are based on a cross-sectional sample of the non-institutionalized United States (US) population within various regions. This sample is selected to be representative of the entire US population at all ages. National Cancer Institute (NCI) methods and SAS survey procedures were used for analyses. Ca:P ratios were calculated using total Ca from both foods and supplements, whereas P intakes were calculated from food composition values and supplements. The amounts of P additives in processed foods are not available.

Results: Mean Ca and P intakes demonstrated lower intakes of Ca and higher intakes of P compared to current Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs). The Ca:P ratios in older male and female adults were influenced by both low-Ca and high-P dietary consumption patterns.

Conclusions: Both low total Ca intakes and high P amounts contribute to lower Ca:P ratios, i.e., ~0.7:1.0, in the consumption patterns of older adults than is recommended by the RDAs, i.e., ~1.5:1.0. Whether Ca:P ratios lower than recommended contribute to increased risk of bone loss, arterial calcification, and all-cause mortality cannot be inferred from these data. Additional amounts of chemical P additives in the food supply may actually reduce even further the Ca:P ratios of older adults of both genders, but, without P additive data from the food industry, calculation of more precise ratios from NHANES 2005-2006 data is not possible.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Summary and distributions of estimated Ca:P ratio. Histogram showing the distribution of Ca:P ratio by gender and age group with vertical line representing the mean Ca:P ratio based on Ca and P RDAs (by mass). More than 98.32% of the younger males had Ca:P ratios less than the calculated RDA value of 1.43, plot A. Older males had a similar percentage below their calculated RDA-based ratio of 1.71, plot C. Among females, 93.64% of the younger group and 92.22% of the older group had a Ca:P ratio lower than the calculated RDA value of 1.71.
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nutrients-07-05492-f003: Summary and distributions of estimated Ca:P ratio. Histogram showing the distribution of Ca:P ratio by gender and age group with vertical line representing the mean Ca:P ratio based on Ca and P RDAs (by mass). More than 98.32% of the younger males had Ca:P ratios less than the calculated RDA value of 1.43, plot A. Older males had a similar percentage below their calculated RDA-based ratio of 1.71, plot C. Among females, 93.64% of the younger group and 92.22% of the older group had a Ca:P ratio lower than the calculated RDA value of 1.71.

Mentions: Figure 1, Figure 2 and Figure 3 present the estimates of Ca, P, and Ca:P ratio, respectively, across gender and age group. Older adults (71+) for both sexes have lower intakes of Ca and P but a higher Ca:P ratio than the younger groups (Figure 3). Looking at variability, older age groups for both sexes have lower variability for Ca and P but higher variability for Ca:P ratio.


Intakes of Calcium and Phosphorus and Calculated Calcium-to-Phosphorus Ratios of Older Adults: NHANES 2005-2006 Data.

Adatorwovor R, Roggenkamp K, Anderson JJ - Nutrients (2015)

Summary and distributions of estimated Ca:P ratio. Histogram showing the distribution of Ca:P ratio by gender and age group with vertical line representing the mean Ca:P ratio based on Ca and P RDAs (by mass). More than 98.32% of the younger males had Ca:P ratios less than the calculated RDA value of 1.43, plot A. Older males had a similar percentage below their calculated RDA-based ratio of 1.71, plot C. Among females, 93.64% of the younger group and 92.22% of the older group had a Ca:P ratio lower than the calculated RDA value of 1.71.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4663620&req=5

nutrients-07-05492-f003: Summary and distributions of estimated Ca:P ratio. Histogram showing the distribution of Ca:P ratio by gender and age group with vertical line representing the mean Ca:P ratio based on Ca and P RDAs (by mass). More than 98.32% of the younger males had Ca:P ratios less than the calculated RDA value of 1.43, plot A. Older males had a similar percentage below their calculated RDA-based ratio of 1.71, plot C. Among females, 93.64% of the younger group and 92.22% of the older group had a Ca:P ratio lower than the calculated RDA value of 1.71.
Mentions: Figure 1, Figure 2 and Figure 3 present the estimates of Ca, P, and Ca:P ratio, respectively, across gender and age group. Older adults (71+) for both sexes have lower intakes of Ca and P but a higher Ca:P ratio than the younger groups (Figure 3). Looking at variability, older age groups for both sexes have lower variability for Ca and P but higher variability for Ca:P ratio.

Bottom Line: This investigation was undertaken to examine Ca and P intakes and the resulting Ca:P ratios (by mass) across gender and older adult age groups, using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2006.Mean Ca and P intakes demonstrated lower intakes of Ca and higher intakes of P compared to current Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs).Additional amounts of chemical P additives in the food supply may actually reduce even further the Ca:P ratios of older adults of both genders, but, without P additive data from the food industry, calculation of more precise ratios from NHANES 2005-2006 data is not possible.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departments of Biostatistics, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7461, USA. radat223@email.unc.edu.

ABSTRACT

Background: High intakes of dietary phosphorus (P), relative to calcium (Ca) intake, are associated with a lower calcium:phosphorus ratio (Ca:P) ratio which potentially has adverse health effects, including arterial calcification, bone loss, and death. A substantial percentage of older adults (50 to 70 and 71 plus years) who have a higher risk of fracture rate than younger adults typically have low intakes of dietary Ca that are dominated by higher intakes of dietary P from natural and fortified foods, and lower Ca:P ratios than desirable.

Objective: This investigation was undertaken to examine Ca and P intakes and the resulting Ca:P ratios (by mass) across gender and older adult age groups, using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2006.

Design: NHANES data are based on a cross-sectional sample of the non-institutionalized United States (US) population within various regions. This sample is selected to be representative of the entire US population at all ages. National Cancer Institute (NCI) methods and SAS survey procedures were used for analyses. Ca:P ratios were calculated using total Ca from both foods and supplements, whereas P intakes were calculated from food composition values and supplements. The amounts of P additives in processed foods are not available.

Results: Mean Ca and P intakes demonstrated lower intakes of Ca and higher intakes of P compared to current Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs). The Ca:P ratios in older male and female adults were influenced by both low-Ca and high-P dietary consumption patterns.

Conclusions: Both low total Ca intakes and high P amounts contribute to lower Ca:P ratios, i.e., ~0.7:1.0, in the consumption patterns of older adults than is recommended by the RDAs, i.e., ~1.5:1.0. Whether Ca:P ratios lower than recommended contribute to increased risk of bone loss, arterial calcification, and all-cause mortality cannot be inferred from these data. Additional amounts of chemical P additives in the food supply may actually reduce even further the Ca:P ratios of older adults of both genders, but, without P additive data from the food industry, calculation of more precise ratios from NHANES 2005-2006 data is not possible.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus