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The Subtle Balance between Lipolysis and Lipogenesis: A Critical Point in Metabolic Homeostasis.

Saponaro C, Gaggini M, Carli F, Gastaldelli A - Nutrients (2015)

Bottom Line: Excessive accumulation of lipids can lead to lipotoxicity, cell dysfunction and alteration in metabolic pathways, both in adipose tissue and peripheral organs, like liver, heart, pancreas and muscle.This is now a recognized risk factor for the development of metabolic disorders, such as obesity, diabetes, fatty liver disease (NAFLD), cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).The causes for lipotoxicity are not only a high fat diet but also excessive lipolysis, adipogenesis and adipose tissue insulin resistance.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Cardiometabolic Risk Unit, Institute of Clinical Physiology, CNR, via Moruzzi, 1 56124 Pisa, Italy. chiara.saponaro@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Excessive accumulation of lipids can lead to lipotoxicity, cell dysfunction and alteration in metabolic pathways, both in adipose tissue and peripheral organs, like liver, heart, pancreas and muscle. This is now a recognized risk factor for the development of metabolic disorders, such as obesity, diabetes, fatty liver disease (NAFLD), cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The causes for lipotoxicity are not only a high fat diet but also excessive lipolysis, adipogenesis and adipose tissue insulin resistance. The aims of this review are to investigate the subtle balances that underlie lipolytic, lipogenic and oxidative pathways, to evaluate critical points and the complexities of these processes and to better understand which are the metabolic derangements resulting from their imbalance, such as type 2 diabetes and non alcoholic fatty liver disease.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Ectopic fat accumulation and effect of lipotoxicity. Fat accumulation in non-adipose tissues promotes cell dysfunction, insulin resistance and inflammation in liver, muscle, pancreas and visceral fat. Also in vessels and heart lipotoxicity leads to increased risk for cardiovascular diseases and atherosclerosis. Modified from Gaggini M. et al. [2].
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nutrients-07-05475-f006: Ectopic fat accumulation and effect of lipotoxicity. Fat accumulation in non-adipose tissues promotes cell dysfunction, insulin resistance and inflammation in liver, muscle, pancreas and visceral fat. Also in vessels and heart lipotoxicity leads to increased risk for cardiovascular diseases and atherosclerosis. Modified from Gaggini M. et al. [2].

Mentions: The imbalance of DNL, lipolysis and β-oxidation results in excess FFA released into the circulation that only in part are taken up by the adipose tissue and the rest by other tissues like the liver, muscle, heart and pancreas [2,111] (Figure 6). In presence of insulin resistance, adipose tissue capacity to metabolize these lipids is limited, so excess lipids also accumulate as ectopic fat and promote lipotoxicity [2]. Lipotoxicity triggers negative effects on multiple cellular processes including impaired insulin signaling [67,112], oxidative stress [113,114], alterations in local renin-angiotensin system [115], enhanced adrenergic sensitivity of vascular smooth muscle cells [116], and mitochondrial dysfunction [111].


The Subtle Balance between Lipolysis and Lipogenesis: A Critical Point in Metabolic Homeostasis.

Saponaro C, Gaggini M, Carli F, Gastaldelli A - Nutrients (2015)

Ectopic fat accumulation and effect of lipotoxicity. Fat accumulation in non-adipose tissues promotes cell dysfunction, insulin resistance and inflammation in liver, muscle, pancreas and visceral fat. Also in vessels and heart lipotoxicity leads to increased risk for cardiovascular diseases and atherosclerosis. Modified from Gaggini M. et al. [2].
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4663603&req=5

nutrients-07-05475-f006: Ectopic fat accumulation and effect of lipotoxicity. Fat accumulation in non-adipose tissues promotes cell dysfunction, insulin resistance and inflammation in liver, muscle, pancreas and visceral fat. Also in vessels and heart lipotoxicity leads to increased risk for cardiovascular diseases and atherosclerosis. Modified from Gaggini M. et al. [2].
Mentions: The imbalance of DNL, lipolysis and β-oxidation results in excess FFA released into the circulation that only in part are taken up by the adipose tissue and the rest by other tissues like the liver, muscle, heart and pancreas [2,111] (Figure 6). In presence of insulin resistance, adipose tissue capacity to metabolize these lipids is limited, so excess lipids also accumulate as ectopic fat and promote lipotoxicity [2]. Lipotoxicity triggers negative effects on multiple cellular processes including impaired insulin signaling [67,112], oxidative stress [113,114], alterations in local renin-angiotensin system [115], enhanced adrenergic sensitivity of vascular smooth muscle cells [116], and mitochondrial dysfunction [111].

Bottom Line: Excessive accumulation of lipids can lead to lipotoxicity, cell dysfunction and alteration in metabolic pathways, both in adipose tissue and peripheral organs, like liver, heart, pancreas and muscle.This is now a recognized risk factor for the development of metabolic disorders, such as obesity, diabetes, fatty liver disease (NAFLD), cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).The causes for lipotoxicity are not only a high fat diet but also excessive lipolysis, adipogenesis and adipose tissue insulin resistance.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Cardiometabolic Risk Unit, Institute of Clinical Physiology, CNR, via Moruzzi, 1 56124 Pisa, Italy. chiara.saponaro@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Excessive accumulation of lipids can lead to lipotoxicity, cell dysfunction and alteration in metabolic pathways, both in adipose tissue and peripheral organs, like liver, heart, pancreas and muscle. This is now a recognized risk factor for the development of metabolic disorders, such as obesity, diabetes, fatty liver disease (NAFLD), cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The causes for lipotoxicity are not only a high fat diet but also excessive lipolysis, adipogenesis and adipose tissue insulin resistance. The aims of this review are to investigate the subtle balances that underlie lipolytic, lipogenic and oxidative pathways, to evaluate critical points and the complexities of these processes and to better understand which are the metabolic derangements resulting from their imbalance, such as type 2 diabetes and non alcoholic fatty liver disease.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus