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Lentil and Kale: Complementary Nutrient-Rich Whole Food Sources to Combat Micronutrient and Calorie Malnutrition.

Migliozzi M, Thavarajah D, Thavarajah P, Smith P - Nutrients (2015)

Bottom Line: Kale (Brassica oleracea v. acephala) has been considered as a health food, but its full range of benefits and composition has not been extensively studied.Recent studies suggest that foods are enrich in prebiotic carbohydrates and dietary fiber that can potentially reduce risks of non-communicable diseases, including obesity, cancer, heart disease, and diabetes.In addition, prebiotic carbohydrate profiles and the genetic potential of these crops for further micronutrient enrichment are briefly discussed with respect to developing sustainable and nutritious food systems.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences, 270 Poole Agricultural Center, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634, USA. megan.migliozzi@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) is a nutritious food and a staple for millions of people. Not only are lentils a good source of energy, they also contain a range of micronutrients and prebiotic carbohydrates. Kale (Brassica oleracea v. acephala) has been considered as a health food, but its full range of benefits and composition has not been extensively studied. Recent studies suggest that foods are enrich in prebiotic carbohydrates and dietary fiber that can potentially reduce risks of non-communicable diseases, including obesity, cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. Lentil and kale added to a cereal-based diet would enhance intakes of essential minerals and vitamins to combat micronutrient malnutrition. This review provides an overview of lentil and kale as a complementary nutrient-rich whole food source to combat global malnutrition and calorie issues. In addition, prebiotic carbohydrate profiles and the genetic potential of these crops for further micronutrient enrichment are briefly discussed with respect to developing sustainable and nutritious food systems.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Prevalence of stunting, underweight, and overweight among children under age of 5 (Data adopted from [14]; WHO, 2015).
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nutrients-07-05471-f001: Prevalence of stunting, underweight, and overweight among children under age of 5 (Data adopted from [14]; WHO, 2015).

Mentions: Micronutrient malnutrition is a global issue. To address hunger in developing nations, past efforts have provided marketable, improved high-yielding cereal crops which are low in essential micronutrients. Indeed, the food produced per capita in 2011 surpassed 2800 kilocalories per day [13]. This is more than enough food to satisfy the caloric needs of the world on a per capita basis. Unfortunately, distribution of food is unequal, leaving billions of people without enough calories to meet daily requirements. Moreover, nutritional health, particularly with respect to micronutrients, has often been overlooked. For example, the introduction of improved high-yield cereal crops that replaced cultivation of more diverse crops resulted in a 20% decrease in vegetable consumption and 40% decrease in fruit consumption in Bangladesh between 1983 and 1995 [5]. Removal of these traditional micronutrient source from daily diets can have wide-ranging impacts. Figure 1 indicates how young children from Africa and Southeast Asia are severely affected by stunting and underweight as a result of micronutrient malnutrition [14]. Approximately 60% of young children under the age of five in Africa are stunted and 35% are underweight (Figure 1). Similar trends of stunting and underweight are observed in South East Asia, however underweight is more prevalent in South East Asia compared to Africa (Figure 1). This issue was recognized in the United Nations Millennium Development Goals, which included a call to reduce the mortality of women and children in Asia and Africa by two-thirds by 2015 using biofortification (breeding crops of increased micronutrient concentration and bioavailability) to improve their micronutrient status [15]. Unlike supplementation and fortification, which add ongoing costs to consumers, biofortification offers the opportunity to change crop nutritional value within the production system and in ways that have little or no impact on consumer cost. For this reason, biofortification is seen as having great potential as a sustainable, food-based solution to global micronutrient malnutrition [16]. HarvestPlus, a non-profit organization introduced biofortified orange-fleshed sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) into Africa and Southeast Asia to provide daily β-carotene requirements for malnourished populations [17]. Other crops introduced in a similar fashion include the African eggplant (Solanum sp.) and lentils [18,19].


Lentil and Kale: Complementary Nutrient-Rich Whole Food Sources to Combat Micronutrient and Calorie Malnutrition.

Migliozzi M, Thavarajah D, Thavarajah P, Smith P - Nutrients (2015)

Prevalence of stunting, underweight, and overweight among children under age of 5 (Data adopted from [14]; WHO, 2015).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4663599&req=5

nutrients-07-05471-f001: Prevalence of stunting, underweight, and overweight among children under age of 5 (Data adopted from [14]; WHO, 2015).
Mentions: Micronutrient malnutrition is a global issue. To address hunger in developing nations, past efforts have provided marketable, improved high-yielding cereal crops which are low in essential micronutrients. Indeed, the food produced per capita in 2011 surpassed 2800 kilocalories per day [13]. This is more than enough food to satisfy the caloric needs of the world on a per capita basis. Unfortunately, distribution of food is unequal, leaving billions of people without enough calories to meet daily requirements. Moreover, nutritional health, particularly with respect to micronutrients, has often been overlooked. For example, the introduction of improved high-yield cereal crops that replaced cultivation of more diverse crops resulted in a 20% decrease in vegetable consumption and 40% decrease in fruit consumption in Bangladesh between 1983 and 1995 [5]. Removal of these traditional micronutrient source from daily diets can have wide-ranging impacts. Figure 1 indicates how young children from Africa and Southeast Asia are severely affected by stunting and underweight as a result of micronutrient malnutrition [14]. Approximately 60% of young children under the age of five in Africa are stunted and 35% are underweight (Figure 1). Similar trends of stunting and underweight are observed in South East Asia, however underweight is more prevalent in South East Asia compared to Africa (Figure 1). This issue was recognized in the United Nations Millennium Development Goals, which included a call to reduce the mortality of women and children in Asia and Africa by two-thirds by 2015 using biofortification (breeding crops of increased micronutrient concentration and bioavailability) to improve their micronutrient status [15]. Unlike supplementation and fortification, which add ongoing costs to consumers, biofortification offers the opportunity to change crop nutritional value within the production system and in ways that have little or no impact on consumer cost. For this reason, biofortification is seen as having great potential as a sustainable, food-based solution to global micronutrient malnutrition [16]. HarvestPlus, a non-profit organization introduced biofortified orange-fleshed sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) into Africa and Southeast Asia to provide daily β-carotene requirements for malnourished populations [17]. Other crops introduced in a similar fashion include the African eggplant (Solanum sp.) and lentils [18,19].

Bottom Line: Kale (Brassica oleracea v. acephala) has been considered as a health food, but its full range of benefits and composition has not been extensively studied.Recent studies suggest that foods are enrich in prebiotic carbohydrates and dietary fiber that can potentially reduce risks of non-communicable diseases, including obesity, cancer, heart disease, and diabetes.In addition, prebiotic carbohydrate profiles and the genetic potential of these crops for further micronutrient enrichment are briefly discussed with respect to developing sustainable and nutritious food systems.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences, 270 Poole Agricultural Center, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634, USA. megan.migliozzi@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) is a nutritious food and a staple for millions of people. Not only are lentils a good source of energy, they also contain a range of micronutrients and prebiotic carbohydrates. Kale (Brassica oleracea v. acephala) has been considered as a health food, but its full range of benefits and composition has not been extensively studied. Recent studies suggest that foods are enrich in prebiotic carbohydrates and dietary fiber that can potentially reduce risks of non-communicable diseases, including obesity, cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. Lentil and kale added to a cereal-based diet would enhance intakes of essential minerals and vitamins to combat micronutrient malnutrition. This review provides an overview of lentil and kale as a complementary nutrient-rich whole food source to combat global malnutrition and calorie issues. In addition, prebiotic carbohydrate profiles and the genetic potential of these crops for further micronutrient enrichment are briefly discussed with respect to developing sustainable and nutritious food systems.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus