Iron Absorption from Two Milk Formulas Fortified with Iron Sulfate Stabilized with Maltodextrin and Citric Acid.
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The geometric mean iron absorption corrected to 40% of the reference dose was 20.6% for Formula A and 20.7% for Formula B, versus 7.5% of iron fortified cow's milk (p < 0.001).The post hoc Sheffé indeed differences between the milk formulas and the cow's milk (p < 0.001).Formulas A and B contain highly bioavailable iron, which contributes to covering toddlers´ requirements of this micronutrient.
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Affiliation: Micronutrients Laboratory, Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA), University of Chile, Avda, El Líbano 5524, 6903625 Santiago, Chile. fpizarro@inta.uchile.cl.
ABSTRACT
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Background: Fortification of milk formulas with iron is a strategy widely used, but the absorption of non-heme iron is low. The purpose of this study was to measure the bioavailability of two iron fortified milk formulas designed to cover toddlers´ nutritional needs. These milks were fortified with iron sulfate stabilized with maltodextrin and citric acid. Methods: 15 women (33-47 years old) participated in study. They received on different days, after an overnight fast, 200 mL of Formula A; 200 mL of Formula B; 30 mL of a solution of iron and ascorbic acid as reference dose and 200 mL of full fat cow's milk fortified with iron as ferrous sulfate. Milk formulas and reference dose were labeled with radioisotopes (59)Fe or (55)Fe, and the absorption of iron measured by erythrocyte incorporation of radioactive Fe. Results: The geometric mean iron absorption corrected to 40% of the reference dose was 20.6% for Formula A and 20.7% for Formula B, versus 7.5% of iron fortified cow's milk (p < 0.001). The post hoc Sheffé indeed differences between the milk formulas and the cow's milk (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Formulas A and B contain highly bioavailable iron, which contributes to covering toddlers´ requirements of this micronutrient. |
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Mentions: Table 3 shows the study’s individual iron bioavailability results. It is observed that the average bioavailability of the reference dose was 38.3% and that it corresponds to the iron absorption of a population deficient in iron, which is similar to the target age group of Formulas A and B. The relationship between the iron bioavailability of the reference dose and the serum ferritin levels of the subjects had a Pearson’s correlation coefficient of 0.79 (p < 0.001). The milk formulas A and B had an iron bioavailability of 19.7 and 19.8%, respectively, versus a 7.2% of fortified cow’s milk (one way ANOVA for repeated measures F = 157; p < 0.001). The post hoc Sheffé test did not show significant differences between Formulas A and B but there were indeed differences between the milk formulas and the cow’s milk (p < 0.001). The iron bioavailability of modified milks and cow’s milk had differences with respect to the reference dose of ferrous ascorbate (p < 0.001). Upon correcting the iron bioavailability figures of milk products to 40% of the reference dose [17] it is observed that the geometric mean bioavailability for Formulas A and B was 20.6 and 20.7% respectively, versus 7.5% of iron fortified cow’s milk (Figure 1). |
View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed
Affiliation: Micronutrients Laboratory, Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA), University of Chile, Avda, El Líbano 5524, 6903625 Santiago, Chile. fpizarro@inta.uchile.cl.
Background: Fortification of milk formulas with iron is a strategy widely used, but the absorption of non-heme iron is low. The purpose of this study was to measure the bioavailability of two iron fortified milk formulas designed to cover toddlers´ nutritional needs. These milks were fortified with iron sulfate stabilized with maltodextrin and citric acid.
Methods: 15 women (33-47 years old) participated in study. They received on different days, after an overnight fast, 200 mL of Formula A; 200 mL of Formula B; 30 mL of a solution of iron and ascorbic acid as reference dose and 200 mL of full fat cow's milk fortified with iron as ferrous sulfate. Milk formulas and reference dose were labeled with radioisotopes (59)Fe or (55)Fe, and the absorption of iron measured by erythrocyte incorporation of radioactive Fe.
Results: The geometric mean iron absorption corrected to 40% of the reference dose was 20.6% for Formula A and 20.7% for Formula B, versus 7.5% of iron fortified cow's milk (p < 0.001). The post hoc Sheffé indeed differences between the milk formulas and the cow's milk (p < 0.001).
Conclusion: Formulas A and B contain highly bioavailable iron, which contributes to covering toddlers´ requirements of this micronutrient.