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Fermentation of Green Tea with 2% Aquilariae lignum Increases the Anti-Diabetic Activity of Green Tea Aqueous Extracts in the High Fat-Fed Mouse.

Lee JE, Kang SJ, Choi SH, Song CH, Lee YJ, Ku SK - Nutrients (2015)

Bottom Line: To prove the differences, hypoglycemic (blood glucose, insulin and glycated hemoglobin levels, pancreas weights and histopathological-immunohistochemistrical analysis of pancreas-insulin/glucagon cells), hepato- and nephron-protective (the changes in liver and kidney weight, histopathology of liver and kidney, serum aminotransferases (AST and ALT) levels, blood urea nitrogen, and serum creatinine levels), and hypolipidemic (the changes of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low- and high-density lipoprotein levels with fecal total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) contents) effects were evaluated.Taken together, fGT fermented with Aquilariae lignum, 1:49 (2%; g/g) has a stronger effect compared with GT.Therefore, fGT has the potential to increase bioactivity against type 2 diabetics.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Medical Research Center for Globalization of Herbal Medicine, Daegu Haany University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongsangbuk-Do 38610, Korea. ck0190@hanmail.net.

ABSTRACT
Anti-diabetic effects on the metabolomic differences between green tea (GT) and Aquilariae lignum-fermented green tea (fGT) were investigated in the high fat-fed mouse. To prove the differences, hypoglycemic (blood glucose, insulin and glycated hemoglobin levels, pancreas weights and histopathological-immunohistochemistrical analysis of pancreas-insulin/glucagon cells), hepato- and nephron-protective (the changes in liver and kidney weight, histopathology of liver and kidney, serum aminotransferases (AST and ALT) levels, blood urea nitrogen, and serum creatinine levels), and hypolipidemic (the changes of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low- and high-density lipoprotein levels with fecal total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) contents) effects were evaluated. In addition, liver lipid peroxidation, the glutathione contents, and catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were measured according to the hepatic glucose-regulating enzyme activities of glucokinase (GK), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pase) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) for action mechanisms. As a result, fGT showed a stronger hypoglycemic, hepato- and nephron-protective, hypolipidemic, and anti-oxidant effect than GT in high fat-fed mice. In addition, fGT-treated mice exerted more favorable inhibitory activities against GK, G6pase, PERCK activities as compared to GT-treated mice. Taken together, fGT fermented with Aquilariae lignum, 1:49 (2%; g/g) has a stronger effect compared with GT. Therefore, fGT has the potential to increase bioactivity against type 2 diabetics.

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Fecal TC and TG content in NFD or HFD supplied mice. Values are expressed mean ± SD of eight mice. NFD, normal fat pellet diet; HFD, high fat diet; GT, green tea extracts; fGT, Aquilariae lignum-fermented green tea extracts; TC, total cholesterol; TG, triglyceride; GT was administrated at a dose level of 400 mg/kg. Simvastatin and metformin were administrated at dose levels of 10 and 250 mg/kg, respectively. ap < 0.01 as compared with intact control; bp < 0.01 as compared with HFD control; cp < 0.01 and dp < 0.05 as compared with GT 400 mg/kg.
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nutrients-07-05447-f007: Fecal TC and TG content in NFD or HFD supplied mice. Values are expressed mean ± SD of eight mice. NFD, normal fat pellet diet; HFD, high fat diet; GT, green tea extracts; fGT, Aquilariae lignum-fermented green tea extracts; TC, total cholesterol; TG, triglyceride; GT was administrated at a dose level of 400 mg/kg. Simvastatin and metformin were administrated at dose levels of 10 and 250 mg/kg, respectively. ap < 0.01 as compared with intact control; bp < 0.01 as compared with HFD control; cp < 0.01 and dp < 0.05 as compared with GT 400 mg/kg.

Mentions: A significant increases in serum TC, TG, and LDL levels and decreases in serum HDL levels were observed in HFD control as compared with intact control. In addition, all of the test substance-treated HFD mice showed significant decreases in serum TC, TG, and LDL levels, and increases in serum HDL levels compared with HFD control. Especially, fGT 400, 200 and 100 mg/kg treated HFD mice also showed significant changes of these indices compared with GT 400 mg/kg treated HFD mice (Table 6). Although slight, non-significant increases of fecal TC and TG contents were detected in HFD control as compared with intact control, the fecal TC and TG contents in all six test material treated mice including fGT 400 mg/kg were significantly elevated as compared with HFD control mice, respectively. Especially, fGT 400, 200 and 100 mg/kg treated HFD mice also showed significant increases of the fecal TC and TG contents as compared with GT 400 mg/kg treated HFD mice, in this experiment (Figure 7).


Fermentation of Green Tea with 2% Aquilariae lignum Increases the Anti-Diabetic Activity of Green Tea Aqueous Extracts in the High Fat-Fed Mouse.

Lee JE, Kang SJ, Choi SH, Song CH, Lee YJ, Ku SK - Nutrients (2015)

Fecal TC and TG content in NFD or HFD supplied mice. Values are expressed mean ± SD of eight mice. NFD, normal fat pellet diet; HFD, high fat diet; GT, green tea extracts; fGT, Aquilariae lignum-fermented green tea extracts; TC, total cholesterol; TG, triglyceride; GT was administrated at a dose level of 400 mg/kg. Simvastatin and metformin were administrated at dose levels of 10 and 250 mg/kg, respectively. ap < 0.01 as compared with intact control; bp < 0.01 as compared with HFD control; cp < 0.01 and dp < 0.05 as compared with GT 400 mg/kg.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4663575&req=5

nutrients-07-05447-f007: Fecal TC and TG content in NFD or HFD supplied mice. Values are expressed mean ± SD of eight mice. NFD, normal fat pellet diet; HFD, high fat diet; GT, green tea extracts; fGT, Aquilariae lignum-fermented green tea extracts; TC, total cholesterol; TG, triglyceride; GT was administrated at a dose level of 400 mg/kg. Simvastatin and metformin were administrated at dose levels of 10 and 250 mg/kg, respectively. ap < 0.01 as compared with intact control; bp < 0.01 as compared with HFD control; cp < 0.01 and dp < 0.05 as compared with GT 400 mg/kg.
Mentions: A significant increases in serum TC, TG, and LDL levels and decreases in serum HDL levels were observed in HFD control as compared with intact control. In addition, all of the test substance-treated HFD mice showed significant decreases in serum TC, TG, and LDL levels, and increases in serum HDL levels compared with HFD control. Especially, fGT 400, 200 and 100 mg/kg treated HFD mice also showed significant changes of these indices compared with GT 400 mg/kg treated HFD mice (Table 6). Although slight, non-significant increases of fecal TC and TG contents were detected in HFD control as compared with intact control, the fecal TC and TG contents in all six test material treated mice including fGT 400 mg/kg were significantly elevated as compared with HFD control mice, respectively. Especially, fGT 400, 200 and 100 mg/kg treated HFD mice also showed significant increases of the fecal TC and TG contents as compared with GT 400 mg/kg treated HFD mice, in this experiment (Figure 7).

Bottom Line: To prove the differences, hypoglycemic (blood glucose, insulin and glycated hemoglobin levels, pancreas weights and histopathological-immunohistochemistrical analysis of pancreas-insulin/glucagon cells), hepato- and nephron-protective (the changes in liver and kidney weight, histopathology of liver and kidney, serum aminotransferases (AST and ALT) levels, blood urea nitrogen, and serum creatinine levels), and hypolipidemic (the changes of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low- and high-density lipoprotein levels with fecal total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) contents) effects were evaluated.Taken together, fGT fermented with Aquilariae lignum, 1:49 (2%; g/g) has a stronger effect compared with GT.Therefore, fGT has the potential to increase bioactivity against type 2 diabetics.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Medical Research Center for Globalization of Herbal Medicine, Daegu Haany University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongsangbuk-Do 38610, Korea. ck0190@hanmail.net.

ABSTRACT
Anti-diabetic effects on the metabolomic differences between green tea (GT) and Aquilariae lignum-fermented green tea (fGT) were investigated in the high fat-fed mouse. To prove the differences, hypoglycemic (blood glucose, insulin and glycated hemoglobin levels, pancreas weights and histopathological-immunohistochemistrical analysis of pancreas-insulin/glucagon cells), hepato- and nephron-protective (the changes in liver and kidney weight, histopathology of liver and kidney, serum aminotransferases (AST and ALT) levels, blood urea nitrogen, and serum creatinine levels), and hypolipidemic (the changes of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low- and high-density lipoprotein levels with fecal total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) contents) effects were evaluated. In addition, liver lipid peroxidation, the glutathione contents, and catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were measured according to the hepatic glucose-regulating enzyme activities of glucokinase (GK), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pase) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) for action mechanisms. As a result, fGT showed a stronger hypoglycemic, hepato- and nephron-protective, hypolipidemic, and anti-oxidant effect than GT in high fat-fed mice. In addition, fGT-treated mice exerted more favorable inhibitory activities against GK, G6pase, PERCK activities as compared to GT-treated mice. Taken together, fGT fermented with Aquilariae lignum, 1:49 (2%; g/g) has a stronger effect compared with GT. Therefore, fGT has the potential to increase bioactivity against type 2 diabetics.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus