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Fermentation of Green Tea with 2% Aquilariae lignum Increases the Anti-Diabetic Activity of Green Tea Aqueous Extracts in the High Fat-Fed Mouse.

Lee JE, Kang SJ, Choi SH, Song CH, Lee YJ, Ku SK - Nutrients (2015)

Bottom Line: To prove the differences, hypoglycemic (blood glucose, insulin and glycated hemoglobin levels, pancreas weights and histopathological-immunohistochemistrical analysis of pancreas-insulin/glucagon cells), hepato- and nephron-protective (the changes in liver and kidney weight, histopathology of liver and kidney, serum aminotransferases (AST and ALT) levels, blood urea nitrogen, and serum creatinine levels), and hypolipidemic (the changes of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low- and high-density lipoprotein levels with fecal total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) contents) effects were evaluated.Taken together, fGT fermented with Aquilariae lignum, 1:49 (2%; g/g) has a stronger effect compared with GT.Therefore, fGT has the potential to increase bioactivity against type 2 diabetics.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Medical Research Center for Globalization of Herbal Medicine, Daegu Haany University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongsangbuk-Do 38610, Korea. ck0190@hanmail.net.

ABSTRACT
Anti-diabetic effects on the metabolomic differences between green tea (GT) and Aquilariae lignum-fermented green tea (fGT) were investigated in the high fat-fed mouse. To prove the differences, hypoglycemic (blood glucose, insulin and glycated hemoglobin levels, pancreas weights and histopathological-immunohistochemistrical analysis of pancreas-insulin/glucagon cells), hepato- and nephron-protective (the changes in liver and kidney weight, histopathology of liver and kidney, serum aminotransferases (AST and ALT) levels, blood urea nitrogen, and serum creatinine levels), and hypolipidemic (the changes of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low- and high-density lipoprotein levels with fecal total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) contents) effects were evaluated. In addition, liver lipid peroxidation, the glutathione contents, and catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were measured according to the hepatic glucose-regulating enzyme activities of glucokinase (GK), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pase) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) for action mechanisms. As a result, fGT showed a stronger hypoglycemic, hepato- and nephron-protective, hypolipidemic, and anti-oxidant effect than GT in high fat-fed mice. In addition, fGT-treated mice exerted more favorable inhibitory activities against GK, G6pase, PERCK activities as compared to GT-treated mice. Taken together, fGT fermented with Aquilariae lignum, 1:49 (2%; g/g) has a stronger effect compared with GT. Therefore, fGT has the potential to increase bioactivity against type 2 diabetics.

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Representative histological images of the insulin- and glucagon-immunoreactive cells in the pancreas, taken from NFD or HFD supplied mice. (A) Intact control: Normal pellet diet supplied vehicle control mice; 10 mL/kg of distilled water oral administered mice; (B) HFD (vehicle) control: 10 mL/kg of distilled water oral administered mice with HFD supply; (C) Simvastatin: 10 mg/kg of simvastatin oral administered mice with HFD supply; (D) Metformin: 250 mg/kg of metformin oral administered mice with HFD supply; (E) GT400: 400 mg/kg of GT oral administered mice with HFD supply; (F) fGT400: 400 mg/kg of fGT oral administered mice with HFD supply; (G) fGT200: 200 mg/kg of fGT oral administered mice with HFD supply; (H) fGT100: 100 mg/kg of fGT oral administered mice with HFD supply. NFD, normal fat pellet diet; HFD, high fat diet; GT, green tea extracts; fGT, Aquilariae lignum-fermented green tea extracts. All immunostained by avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex. Scale bars = 80 µm.
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nutrients-07-05447-f006: Representative histological images of the insulin- and glucagon-immunoreactive cells in the pancreas, taken from NFD or HFD supplied mice. (A) Intact control: Normal pellet diet supplied vehicle control mice; 10 mL/kg of distilled water oral administered mice; (B) HFD (vehicle) control: 10 mL/kg of distilled water oral administered mice with HFD supply; (C) Simvastatin: 10 mg/kg of simvastatin oral administered mice with HFD supply; (D) Metformin: 250 mg/kg of metformin oral administered mice with HFD supply; (E) GT400: 400 mg/kg of GT oral administered mice with HFD supply; (F) fGT400: 400 mg/kg of fGT oral administered mice with HFD supply; (G) fGT200: 200 mg/kg of fGT oral administered mice with HFD supply; (H) fGT100: 100 mg/kg of fGT oral administered mice with HFD supply. NFD, normal fat pellet diet; HFD, high fat diet; GT, green tea extracts; fGT, Aquilariae lignum-fermented green tea extracts. All immunostained by avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex. Scale bars = 80 µm.

Mentions: Significant (p< 0.01) increases in insulin and glucagon-immunoreactive cells, and also insulin/glucagon cells were detected in HFD control mice as compared with intact control, respectively. However, these abnormal increases of insulin and glucagon-immunostained cells and their ratio (insulin/glucagon cells) were significantly (p < 0.01) normalized by treatment of all test substances including fGT 100 mg/kg as compared with HFD control, respectively. Especially, fGT 400, 200 and 100 mg/kg treated HFD mice also showed significant (p < 0.01) decreases of the insulin- and glucagon-immunolabeled cell numbers, insulin/glucagon cell ratios as compared with GT 400 mg/kg treated HFD mice, respectively (Table 5, Figure 6).


Fermentation of Green Tea with 2% Aquilariae lignum Increases the Anti-Diabetic Activity of Green Tea Aqueous Extracts in the High Fat-Fed Mouse.

Lee JE, Kang SJ, Choi SH, Song CH, Lee YJ, Ku SK - Nutrients (2015)

Representative histological images of the insulin- and glucagon-immunoreactive cells in the pancreas, taken from NFD or HFD supplied mice. (A) Intact control: Normal pellet diet supplied vehicle control mice; 10 mL/kg of distilled water oral administered mice; (B) HFD (vehicle) control: 10 mL/kg of distilled water oral administered mice with HFD supply; (C) Simvastatin: 10 mg/kg of simvastatin oral administered mice with HFD supply; (D) Metformin: 250 mg/kg of metformin oral administered mice with HFD supply; (E) GT400: 400 mg/kg of GT oral administered mice with HFD supply; (F) fGT400: 400 mg/kg of fGT oral administered mice with HFD supply; (G) fGT200: 200 mg/kg of fGT oral administered mice with HFD supply; (H) fGT100: 100 mg/kg of fGT oral administered mice with HFD supply. NFD, normal fat pellet diet; HFD, high fat diet; GT, green tea extracts; fGT, Aquilariae lignum-fermented green tea extracts. All immunostained by avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex. Scale bars = 80 µm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4663575&req=5

nutrients-07-05447-f006: Representative histological images of the insulin- and glucagon-immunoreactive cells in the pancreas, taken from NFD or HFD supplied mice. (A) Intact control: Normal pellet diet supplied vehicle control mice; 10 mL/kg of distilled water oral administered mice; (B) HFD (vehicle) control: 10 mL/kg of distilled water oral administered mice with HFD supply; (C) Simvastatin: 10 mg/kg of simvastatin oral administered mice with HFD supply; (D) Metformin: 250 mg/kg of metformin oral administered mice with HFD supply; (E) GT400: 400 mg/kg of GT oral administered mice with HFD supply; (F) fGT400: 400 mg/kg of fGT oral administered mice with HFD supply; (G) fGT200: 200 mg/kg of fGT oral administered mice with HFD supply; (H) fGT100: 100 mg/kg of fGT oral administered mice with HFD supply. NFD, normal fat pellet diet; HFD, high fat diet; GT, green tea extracts; fGT, Aquilariae lignum-fermented green tea extracts. All immunostained by avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex. Scale bars = 80 µm.
Mentions: Significant (p< 0.01) increases in insulin and glucagon-immunoreactive cells, and also insulin/glucagon cells were detected in HFD control mice as compared with intact control, respectively. However, these abnormal increases of insulin and glucagon-immunostained cells and their ratio (insulin/glucagon cells) were significantly (p < 0.01) normalized by treatment of all test substances including fGT 100 mg/kg as compared with HFD control, respectively. Especially, fGT 400, 200 and 100 mg/kg treated HFD mice also showed significant (p < 0.01) decreases of the insulin- and glucagon-immunolabeled cell numbers, insulin/glucagon cell ratios as compared with GT 400 mg/kg treated HFD mice, respectively (Table 5, Figure 6).

Bottom Line: To prove the differences, hypoglycemic (blood glucose, insulin and glycated hemoglobin levels, pancreas weights and histopathological-immunohistochemistrical analysis of pancreas-insulin/glucagon cells), hepato- and nephron-protective (the changes in liver and kidney weight, histopathology of liver and kidney, serum aminotransferases (AST and ALT) levels, blood urea nitrogen, and serum creatinine levels), and hypolipidemic (the changes of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low- and high-density lipoprotein levels with fecal total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) contents) effects were evaluated.Taken together, fGT fermented with Aquilariae lignum, 1:49 (2%; g/g) has a stronger effect compared with GT.Therefore, fGT has the potential to increase bioactivity against type 2 diabetics.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Medical Research Center for Globalization of Herbal Medicine, Daegu Haany University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongsangbuk-Do 38610, Korea. ck0190@hanmail.net.

ABSTRACT
Anti-diabetic effects on the metabolomic differences between green tea (GT) and Aquilariae lignum-fermented green tea (fGT) were investigated in the high fat-fed mouse. To prove the differences, hypoglycemic (blood glucose, insulin and glycated hemoglobin levels, pancreas weights and histopathological-immunohistochemistrical analysis of pancreas-insulin/glucagon cells), hepato- and nephron-protective (the changes in liver and kidney weight, histopathology of liver and kidney, serum aminotransferases (AST and ALT) levels, blood urea nitrogen, and serum creatinine levels), and hypolipidemic (the changes of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low- and high-density lipoprotein levels with fecal total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) contents) effects were evaluated. In addition, liver lipid peroxidation, the glutathione contents, and catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were measured according to the hepatic glucose-regulating enzyme activities of glucokinase (GK), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pase) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) for action mechanisms. As a result, fGT showed a stronger hypoglycemic, hepato- and nephron-protective, hypolipidemic, and anti-oxidant effect than GT in high fat-fed mice. In addition, fGT-treated mice exerted more favorable inhibitory activities against GK, G6pase, PERCK activities as compared to GT-treated mice. Taken together, fGT fermented with Aquilariae lignum, 1:49 (2%; g/g) has a stronger effect compared with GT. Therefore, fGT has the potential to increase bioactivity against type 2 diabetics.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus