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Fermentation of Green Tea with 2% Aquilariae lignum Increases the Anti-Diabetic Activity of Green Tea Aqueous Extracts in the High Fat-Fed Mouse.

Lee JE, Kang SJ, Choi SH, Song CH, Lee YJ, Ku SK - Nutrients (2015)

Bottom Line: To prove the differences, hypoglycemic (blood glucose, insulin and glycated hemoglobin levels, pancreas weights and histopathological-immunohistochemistrical analysis of pancreas-insulin/glucagon cells), hepato- and nephron-protective (the changes in liver and kidney weight, histopathology of liver and kidney, serum aminotransferases (AST and ALT) levels, blood urea nitrogen, and serum creatinine levels), and hypolipidemic (the changes of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low- and high-density lipoprotein levels with fecal total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) contents) effects were evaluated.Taken together, fGT fermented with Aquilariae lignum, 1:49 (2%; g/g) has a stronger effect compared with GT.Therefore, fGT has the potential to increase bioactivity against type 2 diabetics.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Medical Research Center for Globalization of Herbal Medicine, Daegu Haany University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongsangbuk-Do 38610, Korea. ck0190@hanmail.net.

ABSTRACT
Anti-diabetic effects on the metabolomic differences between green tea (GT) and Aquilariae lignum-fermented green tea (fGT) were investigated in the high fat-fed mouse. To prove the differences, hypoglycemic (blood glucose, insulin and glycated hemoglobin levels, pancreas weights and histopathological-immunohistochemistrical analysis of pancreas-insulin/glucagon cells), hepato- and nephron-protective (the changes in liver and kidney weight, histopathology of liver and kidney, serum aminotransferases (AST and ALT) levels, blood urea nitrogen, and serum creatinine levels), and hypolipidemic (the changes of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low- and high-density lipoprotein levels with fecal total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) contents) effects were evaluated. In addition, liver lipid peroxidation, the glutathione contents, and catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were measured according to the hepatic glucose-regulating enzyme activities of glucokinase (GK), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pase) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) for action mechanisms. As a result, fGT showed a stronger hypoglycemic, hepato- and nephron-protective, hypolipidemic, and anti-oxidant effect than GT in high fat-fed mice. In addition, fGT-treated mice exerted more favorable inhibitory activities against GK, G6pase, PERCK activities as compared to GT-treated mice. Taken together, fGT fermented with Aquilariae lignum, 1:49 (2%; g/g) has a stronger effect compared with GT. Therefore, fGT has the potential to increase bioactivity against type 2 diabetics.

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Serum insulin and blood HbA1c contents in NFD or HFD supplied mice. Values are expressed mean ± SD of eight mice. NFD, normal fat pellet diet; HFD, high fat diet; GT, green tea extracts; fGT, Aquilariae lignum-fermented green tea extracts; HbA1c, Glycated hemoglobin, hemoglobin A1c; GT was administrated at a dose level of 400 mg/kg. Simvastatin and metformin were administrated at dose levels of 10 and 250 mg/kg, respectively. ap < 0.01 and bp < 0.05 as compared with intact control; cp < 0.01 as compared with HFD control; dp < 0.01 as compared with GT 400 mg/kg.
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nutrients-07-05447-f005: Serum insulin and blood HbA1c contents in NFD or HFD supplied mice. Values are expressed mean ± SD of eight mice. NFD, normal fat pellet diet; HFD, high fat diet; GT, green tea extracts; fGT, Aquilariae lignum-fermented green tea extracts; HbA1c, Glycated hemoglobin, hemoglobin A1c; GT was administrated at a dose level of 400 mg/kg. Simvastatin and metformin were administrated at dose levels of 10 and 250 mg/kg, respectively. ap < 0.01 and bp < 0.05 as compared with intact control; cp < 0.01 as compared with HFD control; dp < 0.01 as compared with GT 400 mg/kg.

Mentions: Significant (p < 0.01) increases of serum insulin levels were detected in HFD control as compared with intact control. However, the serum insulin levels were significantly (p < 0.01) reduced by treatment of all six test articles as compared with HFD control except for simvastatin 10 mg/kg treated mice, in which similar serum insulin levels were demonstrated as compared with those of HFD control mice. Especially, all three different dosages of fGT 400, 200 and 100 mg/kg treated HFD mice also showed significant (p < 0.01) decreases of the serum insulin levels as compared with GT 400 mg/kg treated HFD mice, respectively (Figure 5). The serum insulin levels in HFD control changed by 265% as compared with intact control, but they changed by 5%, −45%, −24%, −59%, −52% and −45% in simvastatin 10 mg/kg, metformin 250 mg/kg, GT 400 mg/kg, fGT 400, 200 and 100 mg/kg treated mice as compared with HFD control, respectively.


Fermentation of Green Tea with 2% Aquilariae lignum Increases the Anti-Diabetic Activity of Green Tea Aqueous Extracts in the High Fat-Fed Mouse.

Lee JE, Kang SJ, Choi SH, Song CH, Lee YJ, Ku SK - Nutrients (2015)

Serum insulin and blood HbA1c contents in NFD or HFD supplied mice. Values are expressed mean ± SD of eight mice. NFD, normal fat pellet diet; HFD, high fat diet; GT, green tea extracts; fGT, Aquilariae lignum-fermented green tea extracts; HbA1c, Glycated hemoglobin, hemoglobin A1c; GT was administrated at a dose level of 400 mg/kg. Simvastatin and metformin were administrated at dose levels of 10 and 250 mg/kg, respectively. ap < 0.01 and bp < 0.05 as compared with intact control; cp < 0.01 as compared with HFD control; dp < 0.01 as compared with GT 400 mg/kg.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4663575&req=5

nutrients-07-05447-f005: Serum insulin and blood HbA1c contents in NFD or HFD supplied mice. Values are expressed mean ± SD of eight mice. NFD, normal fat pellet diet; HFD, high fat diet; GT, green tea extracts; fGT, Aquilariae lignum-fermented green tea extracts; HbA1c, Glycated hemoglobin, hemoglobin A1c; GT was administrated at a dose level of 400 mg/kg. Simvastatin and metformin were administrated at dose levels of 10 and 250 mg/kg, respectively. ap < 0.01 and bp < 0.05 as compared with intact control; cp < 0.01 as compared with HFD control; dp < 0.01 as compared with GT 400 mg/kg.
Mentions: Significant (p < 0.01) increases of serum insulin levels were detected in HFD control as compared with intact control. However, the serum insulin levels were significantly (p < 0.01) reduced by treatment of all six test articles as compared with HFD control except for simvastatin 10 mg/kg treated mice, in which similar serum insulin levels were demonstrated as compared with those of HFD control mice. Especially, all three different dosages of fGT 400, 200 and 100 mg/kg treated HFD mice also showed significant (p < 0.01) decreases of the serum insulin levels as compared with GT 400 mg/kg treated HFD mice, respectively (Figure 5). The serum insulin levels in HFD control changed by 265% as compared with intact control, but they changed by 5%, −45%, −24%, −59%, −52% and −45% in simvastatin 10 mg/kg, metformin 250 mg/kg, GT 400 mg/kg, fGT 400, 200 and 100 mg/kg treated mice as compared with HFD control, respectively.

Bottom Line: To prove the differences, hypoglycemic (blood glucose, insulin and glycated hemoglobin levels, pancreas weights and histopathological-immunohistochemistrical analysis of pancreas-insulin/glucagon cells), hepato- and nephron-protective (the changes in liver and kidney weight, histopathology of liver and kidney, serum aminotransferases (AST and ALT) levels, blood urea nitrogen, and serum creatinine levels), and hypolipidemic (the changes of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low- and high-density lipoprotein levels with fecal total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) contents) effects were evaluated.Taken together, fGT fermented with Aquilariae lignum, 1:49 (2%; g/g) has a stronger effect compared with GT.Therefore, fGT has the potential to increase bioactivity against type 2 diabetics.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Medical Research Center for Globalization of Herbal Medicine, Daegu Haany University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongsangbuk-Do 38610, Korea. ck0190@hanmail.net.

ABSTRACT
Anti-diabetic effects on the metabolomic differences between green tea (GT) and Aquilariae lignum-fermented green tea (fGT) were investigated in the high fat-fed mouse. To prove the differences, hypoglycemic (blood glucose, insulin and glycated hemoglobin levels, pancreas weights and histopathological-immunohistochemistrical analysis of pancreas-insulin/glucagon cells), hepato- and nephron-protective (the changes in liver and kidney weight, histopathology of liver and kidney, serum aminotransferases (AST and ALT) levels, blood urea nitrogen, and serum creatinine levels), and hypolipidemic (the changes of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low- and high-density lipoprotein levels with fecal total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) contents) effects were evaluated. In addition, liver lipid peroxidation, the glutathione contents, and catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were measured according to the hepatic glucose-regulating enzyme activities of glucokinase (GK), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pase) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) for action mechanisms. As a result, fGT showed a stronger hypoglycemic, hepato- and nephron-protective, hypolipidemic, and anti-oxidant effect than GT in high fat-fed mice. In addition, fGT-treated mice exerted more favorable inhibitory activities against GK, G6pase, PERCK activities as compared to GT-treated mice. Taken together, fGT fermented with Aquilariae lignum, 1:49 (2%; g/g) has a stronger effect compared with GT. Therefore, fGT has the potential to increase bioactivity against type 2 diabetics.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus