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Fermentation of Green Tea with 2% Aquilariae lignum Increases the Anti-Diabetic Activity of Green Tea Aqueous Extracts in the High Fat-Fed Mouse.

Lee JE, Kang SJ, Choi SH, Song CH, Lee YJ, Ku SK - Nutrients (2015)

Bottom Line: To prove the differences, hypoglycemic (blood glucose, insulin and glycated hemoglobin levels, pancreas weights and histopathological-immunohistochemistrical analysis of pancreas-insulin/glucagon cells), hepato- and nephron-protective (the changes in liver and kidney weight, histopathology of liver and kidney, serum aminotransferases (AST and ALT) levels, blood urea nitrogen, and serum creatinine levels), and hypolipidemic (the changes of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low- and high-density lipoprotein levels with fecal total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) contents) effects were evaluated.Taken together, fGT fermented with Aquilariae lignum, 1:49 (2%; g/g) has a stronger effect compared with GT.Therefore, fGT has the potential to increase bioactivity against type 2 diabetics.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Medical Research Center for Globalization of Herbal Medicine, Daegu Haany University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongsangbuk-Do 38610, Korea. ck0190@hanmail.net.

ABSTRACT
Anti-diabetic effects on the metabolomic differences between green tea (GT) and Aquilariae lignum-fermented green tea (fGT) were investigated in the high fat-fed mouse. To prove the differences, hypoglycemic (blood glucose, insulin and glycated hemoglobin levels, pancreas weights and histopathological-immunohistochemistrical analysis of pancreas-insulin/glucagon cells), hepato- and nephron-protective (the changes in liver and kidney weight, histopathology of liver and kidney, serum aminotransferases (AST and ALT) levels, blood urea nitrogen, and serum creatinine levels), and hypolipidemic (the changes of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low- and high-density lipoprotein levels with fecal total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) contents) effects were evaluated. In addition, liver lipid peroxidation, the glutathione contents, and catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were measured according to the hepatic glucose-regulating enzyme activities of glucokinase (GK), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pase) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) for action mechanisms. As a result, fGT showed a stronger hypoglycemic, hepato- and nephron-protective, hypolipidemic, and anti-oxidant effect than GT in high fat-fed mice. In addition, fGT-treated mice exerted more favorable inhibitory activities against GK, G6pase, PERCK activities as compared to GT-treated mice. Taken together, fGT fermented with Aquilariae lignum, 1:49 (2%; g/g) has a stronger effect compared with GT. Therefore, fGT has the potential to increase bioactivity against type 2 diabetics.

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Body weight changes in NFD or HFD supplied mice. Values are expressed as Mean ± SD of eight mice. NFD, normal fat pellet diet; HFD, high fat diet; GT, green tea extracts; fGT, Aquilariae lignum-fermented green tea extracts. Simvastatin and metformin were administrated at dose levels of 10 and 250 mg/kg, respectively. All animals were overnight fasted before initial test substance administrations and sacrifice (†). ap < 0.01 and bp < 0.05 as compared with intact control; cp < 0.01 as compared with HFD control; dp < 0.01 and ep < 0.05 as compared with GT 400 mg/kg.
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nutrients-07-05447-f001: Body weight changes in NFD or HFD supplied mice. Values are expressed as Mean ± SD of eight mice. NFD, normal fat pellet diet; HFD, high fat diet; GT, green tea extracts; fGT, Aquilariae lignum-fermented green tea extracts. Simvastatin and metformin were administrated at dose levels of 10 and 250 mg/kg, respectively. All animals were overnight fasted before initial test substance administrations and sacrifice (†). ap < 0.01 and bp < 0.05 as compared with intact control; cp < 0.01 as compared with HFD control; dp < 0.01 and ep < 0.05 as compared with GT 400 mg/kg.

Mentions: HFD control mice showed significant (p < 0.01) increases in body weight as compared with intact mice from 1 week after HFD supply (arrow), and accordingly, the body weight gains during 7 days of HFD adaption and 84 days of administration were also significantly (p < 0.01) larger as compared with the intact control. However, significant (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05) decreases of the body weights were detected in simvastatin 10 mg/kg, metformin 250 mg/kg, GT 400 mg/kg, fGT 400, 200 and 100 mg/kg treated mice from 14 to 35 days after start of administration as compared with HFD control (dot arrows), and accordingly, the body weight gains during 84 days of administration were also significantly (p < 0.01) lower in these groups as compared with HFD control, respectively. Especially, fGT 400, 200 and 100 mg/kg treated HFD mice also showed significant (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05) decreases of body weight from 63, 56 and 77 days after initial test substance administrations (arrowheads), and they also showed significantly (p < 0.01) lower body weight gains during the 84 days of continuous oral administration as compared with GT 400 mg/kg treated mice, respectively (Figure 1, Table 2).


Fermentation of Green Tea with 2% Aquilariae lignum Increases the Anti-Diabetic Activity of Green Tea Aqueous Extracts in the High Fat-Fed Mouse.

Lee JE, Kang SJ, Choi SH, Song CH, Lee YJ, Ku SK - Nutrients (2015)

Body weight changes in NFD or HFD supplied mice. Values are expressed as Mean ± SD of eight mice. NFD, normal fat pellet diet; HFD, high fat diet; GT, green tea extracts; fGT, Aquilariae lignum-fermented green tea extracts. Simvastatin and metformin were administrated at dose levels of 10 and 250 mg/kg, respectively. All animals were overnight fasted before initial test substance administrations and sacrifice (†). ap < 0.01 and bp < 0.05 as compared with intact control; cp < 0.01 as compared with HFD control; dp < 0.01 and ep < 0.05 as compared with GT 400 mg/kg.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4663575&req=5

nutrients-07-05447-f001: Body weight changes in NFD or HFD supplied mice. Values are expressed as Mean ± SD of eight mice. NFD, normal fat pellet diet; HFD, high fat diet; GT, green tea extracts; fGT, Aquilariae lignum-fermented green tea extracts. Simvastatin and metformin were administrated at dose levels of 10 and 250 mg/kg, respectively. All animals were overnight fasted before initial test substance administrations and sacrifice (†). ap < 0.01 and bp < 0.05 as compared with intact control; cp < 0.01 as compared with HFD control; dp < 0.01 and ep < 0.05 as compared with GT 400 mg/kg.
Mentions: HFD control mice showed significant (p < 0.01) increases in body weight as compared with intact mice from 1 week after HFD supply (arrow), and accordingly, the body weight gains during 7 days of HFD adaption and 84 days of administration were also significantly (p < 0.01) larger as compared with the intact control. However, significant (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05) decreases of the body weights were detected in simvastatin 10 mg/kg, metformin 250 mg/kg, GT 400 mg/kg, fGT 400, 200 and 100 mg/kg treated mice from 14 to 35 days after start of administration as compared with HFD control (dot arrows), and accordingly, the body weight gains during 84 days of administration were also significantly (p < 0.01) lower in these groups as compared with HFD control, respectively. Especially, fGT 400, 200 and 100 mg/kg treated HFD mice also showed significant (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05) decreases of body weight from 63, 56 and 77 days after initial test substance administrations (arrowheads), and they also showed significantly (p < 0.01) lower body weight gains during the 84 days of continuous oral administration as compared with GT 400 mg/kg treated mice, respectively (Figure 1, Table 2).

Bottom Line: To prove the differences, hypoglycemic (blood glucose, insulin and glycated hemoglobin levels, pancreas weights and histopathological-immunohistochemistrical analysis of pancreas-insulin/glucagon cells), hepato- and nephron-protective (the changes in liver and kidney weight, histopathology of liver and kidney, serum aminotransferases (AST and ALT) levels, blood urea nitrogen, and serum creatinine levels), and hypolipidemic (the changes of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low- and high-density lipoprotein levels with fecal total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) contents) effects were evaluated.Taken together, fGT fermented with Aquilariae lignum, 1:49 (2%; g/g) has a stronger effect compared with GT.Therefore, fGT has the potential to increase bioactivity against type 2 diabetics.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Medical Research Center for Globalization of Herbal Medicine, Daegu Haany University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongsangbuk-Do 38610, Korea. ck0190@hanmail.net.

ABSTRACT
Anti-diabetic effects on the metabolomic differences between green tea (GT) and Aquilariae lignum-fermented green tea (fGT) were investigated in the high fat-fed mouse. To prove the differences, hypoglycemic (blood glucose, insulin and glycated hemoglobin levels, pancreas weights and histopathological-immunohistochemistrical analysis of pancreas-insulin/glucagon cells), hepato- and nephron-protective (the changes in liver and kidney weight, histopathology of liver and kidney, serum aminotransferases (AST and ALT) levels, blood urea nitrogen, and serum creatinine levels), and hypolipidemic (the changes of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low- and high-density lipoprotein levels with fecal total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) contents) effects were evaluated. In addition, liver lipid peroxidation, the glutathione contents, and catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were measured according to the hepatic glucose-regulating enzyme activities of glucokinase (GK), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pase) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) for action mechanisms. As a result, fGT showed a stronger hypoglycemic, hepato- and nephron-protective, hypolipidemic, and anti-oxidant effect than GT in high fat-fed mice. In addition, fGT-treated mice exerted more favorable inhibitory activities against GK, G6pase, PERCK activities as compared to GT-treated mice. Taken together, fGT fermented with Aquilariae lignum, 1:49 (2%; g/g) has a stronger effect compared with GT. Therefore, fGT has the potential to increase bioactivity against type 2 diabetics.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus