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Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Skeletal Muscle Health.

Jeromson S, Gallagher IJ, Galloway SD, Hamilton DL - Mar Drugs (2015)

Bottom Line: Omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin therefore have the potential to alter the trajectory of a number of human diseases including the physical decline associated with aging.We explore the potential molecular mechanisms by which omega-3 fatty acids may act in skeletal muscle, considering the n-3/n-6 ratio, inflammation and lipidomic remodelling as possible mechanisms of action.Finally, we suggest some avenues for further research to clarify how omega-3 fatty acids may be exerting their biological action in skeletal muscle.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Health and Exercise Sciences Research Group, School of Sport, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA Scotland, UK. stewart.jeromson@stir.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue capable of adapting and mal-adapting to physical activity and diet. The response of skeletal muscle to adaptive stimuli, such as exercise, can be modified by the prior nutritional status of the muscle. The influence of nutrition on skeletal muscle has the potential to substantially impact physical function and whole body metabolism. Animal and cell based models show that omega-3 fatty acids, in particular those of marine origin, can influence skeletal muscle metabolism. Furthermore, recent human studies demonstrate that omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin can influence the exercise and nutritional response of skeletal muscle. These studies show that the prior omega-3 status influences not only the metabolic response of muscle to nutrition, but also the functional response to a period of exercise training. Omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin therefore have the potential to alter the trajectory of a number of human diseases including the physical decline associated with aging. We explore the potential molecular mechanisms by which omega-3 fatty acids may act in skeletal muscle, considering the n-3/n-6 ratio, inflammation and lipidomic remodelling as possible mechanisms of action. Finally, we suggest some avenues for further research to clarify how omega-3 fatty acids may be exerting their biological action in skeletal muscle.

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Highlights some of the mechanisms of action by which omega-3 PUFAs EPA and DHA may influence skeletal muscle health and function.
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marinedrugs-13-06977-f001: Highlights some of the mechanisms of action by which omega-3 PUFAs EPA and DHA may influence skeletal muscle health and function.

Mentions: The results from omega-3 supplementation trials have often been mixed, yielding responses when combined in meta-analyses. We hypothesize that one of the primary variables that may limit the effect of omega-3 fatty acids is a high n-6/n-3 ratio. Evidently the relationship between omega-3 and omega-6 PUFAs is not simply antagonistic and different effects of fatty acids within each subclass adds to the complexity. Further studies should aim disseminate the interaction between omega-3 and omega-6 PUFAs and how this may impact metabolism. The currently available evidence suggests that omega-3 PUFAs EPA and DHA may be effective in preventing the deleterious effects of atrophic conditions or low grade inflammation (Figure 1). The research has focused predominantly on EPA and DHA, yet it is now emerging that DPA has also been shown to have similar, and in some cases, more potent effects. There is emerging evidence that different omega-3 PUFAs has divergent metabolic functions, and further research is required to understand the different mechanisms underpinning these effects. The recent advances in the “omic” techniques and mass spectrometry technology will allow for a comprehensive and sensitive approach to analysing the metabolic changes induced through omega-3 uptake. Currently, omega-3 PUFAs are mainly derived from marine sources. Given the increasing environmental pressures on fish populations it brings into question the sustainability of fish as a suitable resource of omega-3. It is estimated by 2050 that the human population will reach 9.1 billion and global warming will reduce the omega-3 content in algae, reducing the total omega-3 content in fish [175]. This highlights the need to understand the mechanisms of omega-3 PUFA action which may lead to the development of an omega-3 mimetic and provide a sustainable long term source.


Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Skeletal Muscle Health.

Jeromson S, Gallagher IJ, Galloway SD, Hamilton DL - Mar Drugs (2015)

Highlights some of the mechanisms of action by which omega-3 PUFAs EPA and DHA may influence skeletal muscle health and function.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4663562&req=5

marinedrugs-13-06977-f001: Highlights some of the mechanisms of action by which omega-3 PUFAs EPA and DHA may influence skeletal muscle health and function.
Mentions: The results from omega-3 supplementation trials have often been mixed, yielding responses when combined in meta-analyses. We hypothesize that one of the primary variables that may limit the effect of omega-3 fatty acids is a high n-6/n-3 ratio. Evidently the relationship between omega-3 and omega-6 PUFAs is not simply antagonistic and different effects of fatty acids within each subclass adds to the complexity. Further studies should aim disseminate the interaction between omega-3 and omega-6 PUFAs and how this may impact metabolism. The currently available evidence suggests that omega-3 PUFAs EPA and DHA may be effective in preventing the deleterious effects of atrophic conditions or low grade inflammation (Figure 1). The research has focused predominantly on EPA and DHA, yet it is now emerging that DPA has also been shown to have similar, and in some cases, more potent effects. There is emerging evidence that different omega-3 PUFAs has divergent metabolic functions, and further research is required to understand the different mechanisms underpinning these effects. The recent advances in the “omic” techniques and mass spectrometry technology will allow for a comprehensive and sensitive approach to analysing the metabolic changes induced through omega-3 uptake. Currently, omega-3 PUFAs are mainly derived from marine sources. Given the increasing environmental pressures on fish populations it brings into question the sustainability of fish as a suitable resource of omega-3. It is estimated by 2050 that the human population will reach 9.1 billion and global warming will reduce the omega-3 content in algae, reducing the total omega-3 content in fish [175]. This highlights the need to understand the mechanisms of omega-3 PUFA action which may lead to the development of an omega-3 mimetic and provide a sustainable long term source.

Bottom Line: Omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin therefore have the potential to alter the trajectory of a number of human diseases including the physical decline associated with aging.We explore the potential molecular mechanisms by which omega-3 fatty acids may act in skeletal muscle, considering the n-3/n-6 ratio, inflammation and lipidomic remodelling as possible mechanisms of action.Finally, we suggest some avenues for further research to clarify how omega-3 fatty acids may be exerting their biological action in skeletal muscle.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Health and Exercise Sciences Research Group, School of Sport, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA Scotland, UK. stewart.jeromson@stir.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue capable of adapting and mal-adapting to physical activity and diet. The response of skeletal muscle to adaptive stimuli, such as exercise, can be modified by the prior nutritional status of the muscle. The influence of nutrition on skeletal muscle has the potential to substantially impact physical function and whole body metabolism. Animal and cell based models show that omega-3 fatty acids, in particular those of marine origin, can influence skeletal muscle metabolism. Furthermore, recent human studies demonstrate that omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin can influence the exercise and nutritional response of skeletal muscle. These studies show that the prior omega-3 status influences not only the metabolic response of muscle to nutrition, but also the functional response to a period of exercise training. Omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin therefore have the potential to alter the trajectory of a number of human diseases including the physical decline associated with aging. We explore the potential molecular mechanisms by which omega-3 fatty acids may act in skeletal muscle, considering the n-3/n-6 ratio, inflammation and lipidomic remodelling as possible mechanisms of action. Finally, we suggest some avenues for further research to clarify how omega-3 fatty acids may be exerting their biological action in skeletal muscle.

Show MeSH