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Polyphenol-Rich Fraction of Ecklonia cava Improves Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in High Fat Diet-Fed Mice.

Park EY, Choi H, Yoon JY, Lee IY, Seo Y, Moon HS, Hwang JH, Jun HS - Mar Drugs (2015)

Bottom Line: Ecklonia cava (E. cava; CA) is an edible brown alga with beneficial effects in diabetes via regulation of various metabolic processes such as lipogenesis, lipolysis, inflammation, and the antioxidant defense system in liver and adipose tissue.Further, we analyzed hepatic gene expression related to inflammation and lipid metabolism.The mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines and hepatic lipogenesis-related genes were decreased in G-CA-treated HFD mice.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Pharmacy, Mokpo National University, Muan-gun, Jeonnam 58554, Korea. parkey@mokpo.ac.kr.

ABSTRACT
Ecklonia cava (E. cava; CA) is an edible brown alga with beneficial effects in diabetes via regulation of various metabolic processes such as lipogenesis, lipolysis, inflammation, and the antioxidant defense system in liver and adipose tissue. We investigated the effect of the polyphenol-rich fraction of E. cava produced from Gijang (G-CA) on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. C57BL6 mice were fed a HFD for six weeks and then the HFD group was administered 300 mg/kg of G-CA extracts by oral intubation for 10 weeks. Body weight, fat mass, and serum biochemical parameters were reduced by G-CA extract treatment. MRI/MRS analysis showed that liver fat and liver volume in HFD-induced obese mice were reduced by G-CA extract treatment. Further, we analyzed hepatic gene expression related to inflammation and lipid metabolism. The mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines and hepatic lipogenesis-related genes were decreased in G-CA-treated HFD mice. The mRNA expression levels of cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase 1 (CYP7A1), the key enzyme in bile acid synthesis, were dramatically increased by G-CA treatment in HFD mice. We suggest that G-CA treatment ameliorated hepatic steatosis by inhibiting inflammation and improving lipid metabolism.

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Effect of G-CA (E. cava produced from Gijang) on body weight and fat content. Six weeks after beginning a high fat diet, C57BL6 mice were orally administered G-CA (300 mg/kg body weight) or PBS daily: (A) A diagram of experimental procedure. (B) After 10 weeks of G-CA treatment, body weights and weight gain were measured (NC: n = 5, PBS-HFD: n = 9, G-CA-HFD: n = 7). (C) Whole body fat and lean mass were measured by a 1H minispec system. (D) From the left to the right, 1D shows fat-suppressed, T1-weighted, and segmented MRI of the same transverse slice of a mouse (n = 5). The upper and lower rows show the images from the PBS-HFD and the G-CA-HFD groups, respectively. Segmented images on the right depict segmented regions in 3 different colors (blue: subcutaneous fat, pink: visceral fat, yellow: muscle). (E) Volumes of various tissues (visceral fat, subcutaneous fat, and total muscle) were quantitated from MRI data. (F) Epididymal fat and subcutaneous fat pad were collected and weighed. NC: untreated, normal chow diet; PBS-HFD: PBS-treated, high fat diet (HFD); and G-CA-HFD: G-CA-treated, HFD. Values are mean ± SE. ** p < 0.01 vs. NC group; #p < 0.05, ##p < 0.01 vs. PBS-HFD group.
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marinedrugs-13-06866-f001: Effect of G-CA (E. cava produced from Gijang) on body weight and fat content. Six weeks after beginning a high fat diet, C57BL6 mice were orally administered G-CA (300 mg/kg body weight) or PBS daily: (A) A diagram of experimental procedure. (B) After 10 weeks of G-CA treatment, body weights and weight gain were measured (NC: n = 5, PBS-HFD: n = 9, G-CA-HFD: n = 7). (C) Whole body fat and lean mass were measured by a 1H minispec system. (D) From the left to the right, 1D shows fat-suppressed, T1-weighted, and segmented MRI of the same transverse slice of a mouse (n = 5). The upper and lower rows show the images from the PBS-HFD and the G-CA-HFD groups, respectively. Segmented images on the right depict segmented regions in 3 different colors (blue: subcutaneous fat, pink: visceral fat, yellow: muscle). (E) Volumes of various tissues (visceral fat, subcutaneous fat, and total muscle) were quantitated from MRI data. (F) Epididymal fat and subcutaneous fat pad were collected and weighed. NC: untreated, normal chow diet; PBS-HFD: PBS-treated, high fat diet (HFD); and G-CA-HFD: G-CA-treated, HFD. Values are mean ± SE. ** p < 0.01 vs. NC group; #p < 0.05, ##p < 0.01 vs. PBS-HFD group.

Mentions: Since NAFLD pathogenesis is related to obesity, measuring weight loss is a reasonable approach for evaluating NAFLD treatment [20,21]. Therefore, we measured whether CA treatment can reduce the body weight gain in HFD-fed mice. CA-HFD mice had low body weights and less weight gain (39.64% decrease) compared with the PBS-HFD mice (Figure 1B and Figure S1). The amount of food consumption per day over the 10-week period was not significantly different between PBS-HFD and G-CA-HFD (Figure S1). To investigate whether G-CA treatment affects body composition, we measured fat and lean mass using NMR, non-invasive body composition analyzer. Total fat mass was significantly decreased in the G-CA-treated group compared with that PBS-treated group, whereas lean mass was not different between the two groups (Figure 1C). The regional fat and skeletal muscle volumes were analyzed by MRI. As shown in Figure 1D,E, in the G-CA-HFD mice group visceral and whole body subcutaneous fat were reduced as compared to the PBS-HFD mice group (visceral fat: 7.6 ± 0.6 vs. 7.0 ± 0.9 mL; whole body subcutaneous fat 8.3 ± 0.5 vs. 7.5 ± 0.5 mL, p < 0.05). In addition, little difference was found in response to G-CA treatment in muscle volume of the whole body. The subcutaneous and epididymal fat pad weights of G-CA-HFD mice were significantly decreased compared with the PBS-HFD mice (Figure 1F).


Polyphenol-Rich Fraction of Ecklonia cava Improves Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in High Fat Diet-Fed Mice.

Park EY, Choi H, Yoon JY, Lee IY, Seo Y, Moon HS, Hwang JH, Jun HS - Mar Drugs (2015)

Effect of G-CA (E. cava produced from Gijang) on body weight and fat content. Six weeks after beginning a high fat diet, C57BL6 mice were orally administered G-CA (300 mg/kg body weight) or PBS daily: (A) A diagram of experimental procedure. (B) After 10 weeks of G-CA treatment, body weights and weight gain were measured (NC: n = 5, PBS-HFD: n = 9, G-CA-HFD: n = 7). (C) Whole body fat and lean mass were measured by a 1H minispec system. (D) From the left to the right, 1D shows fat-suppressed, T1-weighted, and segmented MRI of the same transverse slice of a mouse (n = 5). The upper and lower rows show the images from the PBS-HFD and the G-CA-HFD groups, respectively. Segmented images on the right depict segmented regions in 3 different colors (blue: subcutaneous fat, pink: visceral fat, yellow: muscle). (E) Volumes of various tissues (visceral fat, subcutaneous fat, and total muscle) were quantitated from MRI data. (F) Epididymal fat and subcutaneous fat pad were collected and weighed. NC: untreated, normal chow diet; PBS-HFD: PBS-treated, high fat diet (HFD); and G-CA-HFD: G-CA-treated, HFD. Values are mean ± SE. ** p < 0.01 vs. NC group; #p < 0.05, ##p < 0.01 vs. PBS-HFD group.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4663557&req=5

marinedrugs-13-06866-f001: Effect of G-CA (E. cava produced from Gijang) on body weight and fat content. Six weeks after beginning a high fat diet, C57BL6 mice were orally administered G-CA (300 mg/kg body weight) or PBS daily: (A) A diagram of experimental procedure. (B) After 10 weeks of G-CA treatment, body weights and weight gain were measured (NC: n = 5, PBS-HFD: n = 9, G-CA-HFD: n = 7). (C) Whole body fat and lean mass were measured by a 1H minispec system. (D) From the left to the right, 1D shows fat-suppressed, T1-weighted, and segmented MRI of the same transverse slice of a mouse (n = 5). The upper and lower rows show the images from the PBS-HFD and the G-CA-HFD groups, respectively. Segmented images on the right depict segmented regions in 3 different colors (blue: subcutaneous fat, pink: visceral fat, yellow: muscle). (E) Volumes of various tissues (visceral fat, subcutaneous fat, and total muscle) were quantitated from MRI data. (F) Epididymal fat and subcutaneous fat pad were collected and weighed. NC: untreated, normal chow diet; PBS-HFD: PBS-treated, high fat diet (HFD); and G-CA-HFD: G-CA-treated, HFD. Values are mean ± SE. ** p < 0.01 vs. NC group; #p < 0.05, ##p < 0.01 vs. PBS-HFD group.
Mentions: Since NAFLD pathogenesis is related to obesity, measuring weight loss is a reasonable approach for evaluating NAFLD treatment [20,21]. Therefore, we measured whether CA treatment can reduce the body weight gain in HFD-fed mice. CA-HFD mice had low body weights and less weight gain (39.64% decrease) compared with the PBS-HFD mice (Figure 1B and Figure S1). The amount of food consumption per day over the 10-week period was not significantly different between PBS-HFD and G-CA-HFD (Figure S1). To investigate whether G-CA treatment affects body composition, we measured fat and lean mass using NMR, non-invasive body composition analyzer. Total fat mass was significantly decreased in the G-CA-treated group compared with that PBS-treated group, whereas lean mass was not different between the two groups (Figure 1C). The regional fat and skeletal muscle volumes were analyzed by MRI. As shown in Figure 1D,E, in the G-CA-HFD mice group visceral and whole body subcutaneous fat were reduced as compared to the PBS-HFD mice group (visceral fat: 7.6 ± 0.6 vs. 7.0 ± 0.9 mL; whole body subcutaneous fat 8.3 ± 0.5 vs. 7.5 ± 0.5 mL, p < 0.05). In addition, little difference was found in response to G-CA treatment in muscle volume of the whole body. The subcutaneous and epididymal fat pad weights of G-CA-HFD mice were significantly decreased compared with the PBS-HFD mice (Figure 1F).

Bottom Line: Ecklonia cava (E. cava; CA) is an edible brown alga with beneficial effects in diabetes via regulation of various metabolic processes such as lipogenesis, lipolysis, inflammation, and the antioxidant defense system in liver and adipose tissue.Further, we analyzed hepatic gene expression related to inflammation and lipid metabolism.The mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines and hepatic lipogenesis-related genes were decreased in G-CA-treated HFD mice.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Pharmacy, Mokpo National University, Muan-gun, Jeonnam 58554, Korea. parkey@mokpo.ac.kr.

ABSTRACT
Ecklonia cava (E. cava; CA) is an edible brown alga with beneficial effects in diabetes via regulation of various metabolic processes such as lipogenesis, lipolysis, inflammation, and the antioxidant defense system in liver and adipose tissue. We investigated the effect of the polyphenol-rich fraction of E. cava produced from Gijang (G-CA) on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. C57BL6 mice were fed a HFD for six weeks and then the HFD group was administered 300 mg/kg of G-CA extracts by oral intubation for 10 weeks. Body weight, fat mass, and serum biochemical parameters were reduced by G-CA extract treatment. MRI/MRS analysis showed that liver fat and liver volume in HFD-induced obese mice were reduced by G-CA extract treatment. Further, we analyzed hepatic gene expression related to inflammation and lipid metabolism. The mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines and hepatic lipogenesis-related genes were decreased in G-CA-treated HFD mice. The mRNA expression levels of cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase 1 (CYP7A1), the key enzyme in bile acid synthesis, were dramatically increased by G-CA treatment in HFD mice. We suggest that G-CA treatment ameliorated hepatic steatosis by inhibiting inflammation and improving lipid metabolism.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus