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Fish Synucleins: An Update.

Toni M, Cioni C - Mar Drugs (2015)

Bottom Line: No counterparts of syns were found in invertebrates suggesting that they are vertebrate-specific proteins.The list of "non verified" sequences is much longer and is often found in sequence databases.Indeed, fish models may play a key role in elucidating some of the molecular mechanisms involved in physiological and pathological functions of syn proteins.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology and Biotechnology "Charles Darwin", Sapienza University, Via Alfonso Borelli 50, Rome 00161, Italy. mattia.toni@uniroma1.it.

ABSTRACT
Synucleins (syns) are a family of proteins involved in several human neurodegenerative diseases and tumors. Since the first syn discovery in the brain of the electric ray Torpedo californica, members of the same family have been identified in all vertebrates and comparative studies have indicated that syn proteins are evolutionary conserved. No counterparts of syns were found in invertebrates suggesting that they are vertebrate-specific proteins. Molecular studies showed that the number of syn members varies among vertebrates. Three genes encode for α-, β- and γ-syn in mammals and birds. However, a variable number of syn genes and encoded proteins is expressed or predicted in fish depending on the species. Among biologically verified sequences, four syn genes were identified in fugu, encoding for α, β and two γ (γ1 and γ2) isoforms, whereas only three genes are expressed in zebrafish, which lacks α-syn gene. The list of "non verified" sequences is much longer and is often found in sequence databases. In this review we provide an overview of published papers and known syn sequences in agnathans and fish that are likely to impact future studies in this field. Indeed, fish models may play a key role in elucidating some of the molecular mechanisms involved in physiological and pathological functions of syn proteins.

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Cladogram of a ClustalX2 alignment of the ammino acid sequence of fish syns available in the NCBI database and reported in Table 1. The syn isoforms (a = α-syn; b = β-syn; g = γ-syn; s = synuclein, sl = synuclein like) with their accession numbers are shown on the right of the tree. The distance matrix employed maximum likelihood with bootstrapping (500 repetitions). Sequences highlighted in gray, orange, light blue, green and yellow refers to α-syns, β-syns, γ-syns, syn and syn-like, respectively. Arrows indicate human and rat sequences. Main sequence clusters (C) are indicated on the right of the figure.
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marinedrugs-13-06665-f001: Cladogram of a ClustalX2 alignment of the ammino acid sequence of fish syns available in the NCBI database and reported in Table 1. The syn isoforms (a = α-syn; b = β-syn; g = γ-syn; s = synuclein, sl = synuclein like) with their accession numbers are shown on the right of the tree. The distance matrix employed maximum likelihood with bootstrapping (500 repetitions). Sequences highlighted in gray, orange, light blue, green and yellow refers to α-syns, β-syns, γ-syns, syn and syn-like, respectively. Arrows indicate human and rat sequences. Main sequence clusters (C) are indicated on the right of the figure.

Mentions: With the aim of classifying available fish syns, we have analyzed the 144 aa sequences reported in Table 1 by Clustal W2, ProtTest 2.4 server (http://darwin.uvigo.es/software/prottest2_server.html) and MEGA 6.02 software and obtained the maximum likelihood tree represented in Figure 1.


Fish Synucleins: An Update.

Toni M, Cioni C - Mar Drugs (2015)

Cladogram of a ClustalX2 alignment of the ammino acid sequence of fish syns available in the NCBI database and reported in Table 1. The syn isoforms (a = α-syn; b = β-syn; g = γ-syn; s = synuclein, sl = synuclein like) with their accession numbers are shown on the right of the tree. The distance matrix employed maximum likelihood with bootstrapping (500 repetitions). Sequences highlighted in gray, orange, light blue, green and yellow refers to α-syns, β-syns, γ-syns, syn and syn-like, respectively. Arrows indicate human and rat sequences. Main sequence clusters (C) are indicated on the right of the figure.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4663547&req=5

marinedrugs-13-06665-f001: Cladogram of a ClustalX2 alignment of the ammino acid sequence of fish syns available in the NCBI database and reported in Table 1. The syn isoforms (a = α-syn; b = β-syn; g = γ-syn; s = synuclein, sl = synuclein like) with their accession numbers are shown on the right of the tree. The distance matrix employed maximum likelihood with bootstrapping (500 repetitions). Sequences highlighted in gray, orange, light blue, green and yellow refers to α-syns, β-syns, γ-syns, syn and syn-like, respectively. Arrows indicate human and rat sequences. Main sequence clusters (C) are indicated on the right of the figure.
Mentions: With the aim of classifying available fish syns, we have analyzed the 144 aa sequences reported in Table 1 by Clustal W2, ProtTest 2.4 server (http://darwin.uvigo.es/software/prottest2_server.html) and MEGA 6.02 software and obtained the maximum likelihood tree represented in Figure 1.

Bottom Line: No counterparts of syns were found in invertebrates suggesting that they are vertebrate-specific proteins.The list of "non verified" sequences is much longer and is often found in sequence databases.Indeed, fish models may play a key role in elucidating some of the molecular mechanisms involved in physiological and pathological functions of syn proteins.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology and Biotechnology "Charles Darwin", Sapienza University, Via Alfonso Borelli 50, Rome 00161, Italy. mattia.toni@uniroma1.it.

ABSTRACT
Synucleins (syns) are a family of proteins involved in several human neurodegenerative diseases and tumors. Since the first syn discovery in the brain of the electric ray Torpedo californica, members of the same family have been identified in all vertebrates and comparative studies have indicated that syn proteins are evolutionary conserved. No counterparts of syns were found in invertebrates suggesting that they are vertebrate-specific proteins. Molecular studies showed that the number of syn members varies among vertebrates. Three genes encode for α-, β- and γ-syn in mammals and birds. However, a variable number of syn genes and encoded proteins is expressed or predicted in fish depending on the species. Among biologically verified sequences, four syn genes were identified in fugu, encoding for α, β and two γ (γ1 and γ2) isoforms, whereas only three genes are expressed in zebrafish, which lacks α-syn gene. The list of "non verified" sequences is much longer and is often found in sequence databases. In this review we provide an overview of published papers and known syn sequences in agnathans and fish that are likely to impact future studies in this field. Indeed, fish models may play a key role in elucidating some of the molecular mechanisms involved in physiological and pathological functions of syn proteins.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus