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Metabolism of deoxynivalenol and deepoxy-deoxynivalenol in broiler chickens, pullets, roosters and turkeys.

Schwartz-Zimmermann HE, Fruhmann P, Dänicke S, Wiesenberger G, Caha S, Weber J, Berthiller F - Toxins (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: Recently, deoxynivalenol-3-sulfate (DON-3-sulfate) was proposed as a major DON metabolite in poultry.In pullets, DON-3-sulfate concentrations increased from jejunum chyme samples to excreta samples by a factor of 60.This result, put into context with earlier studies, indicates fast and efficient absorption of DON between crop and jejunum, conversion to DON-3-sulfate in intestinal mucosa, liver, and possibly kidney, and rapid elimination into excreta via bile and urine.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Christian Doppler Laboratory for Mycotoxin Metabolism, Center for Analytical Chemistry, Department of Agrobiotechnology (IFA-Tulln), University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Tulln 3430, Austria. heidi.schwartz@boku.ac.at.

ABSTRACT
Recently, deoxynivalenol-3-sulfate (DON-3-sulfate) was proposed as a major DON metabolite in poultry. In the present work, the first LC-MS/MS based method for determination of DON-3-sulfate, deepoxy-DON-3-sulfate (DOM-3-sulfate), DON, DOM, DON sulfonates 1, 2, 3, and DOM sulfonate 2 in excreta samples of chickens and turkeys was developed and validated. To this end, DOM-3-sulfate was chemically synthesized and characterized by NMR and LC-HR-MS/MS measurements. Application of the method to excreta and chyme samples of four feeding trials with turkeys, chickens, pullets, and roosters confirmed DON-3-sulfate as the major DON metabolite in all poultry species studied. Analogously to DON-3-sulfate, DOM-3-sulfate was formed after oral administration of DOM both in turkeys and in chickens. In addition, pullets and roosters metabolized DON into DOM-3-sulfate. In vitro transcription/translation assays revealed DOM-3-sulfate to be 2000 times less toxic on the ribosome than DON. Biological recoveries of DON and DOM orally administered to broiler chickens, turkeys, and pullets were 74%-106% (chickens), 51%-72% (roosters), and 131%-151% (pullets). In pullets, DON-3-sulfate concentrations increased from jejunum chyme samples to excreta samples by a factor of 60. This result, put into context with earlier studies, indicates fast and efficient absorption of DON between crop and jejunum, conversion to DON-3-sulfate in intestinal mucosa, liver, and possibly kidney, and rapid elimination into excreta via bile and urine.

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Average DON equivalent concentrations ± standard deviation (n = 4) of DON-3-sulfate and DOM-3-sulfate in excreta of turkeys and chickens at different sampling times (turkeys: 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 11, 15 and 24 h after start of feeding; chickens: 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 24 h after start of feeding).
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toxins-07-04706-f002: Average DON equivalent concentrations ± standard deviation (n = 4) of DON-3-sulfate and DOM-3-sulfate in excreta of turkeys and chickens at different sampling times (turkeys: 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 11, 15 and 24 h after start of feeding; chickens: 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 24 h after start of feeding).

Mentions: Both in turkeys and in chickens, DON-3-sulfate was the major DON metabolite, followed by DON. Analogous to that, DOM-3-sulfate turned out to be the major metabolite of orally administered DOM. DOM itself could not be detected in any of the excreta samples of the turkey and the chicken trial, nor could any of the DON- or DOM sulfonates. The average DON equivalent concentrations of the main DON- and DOM metabolites in excreta of turkeys and chickens (n = 4 for each species) at the individual sampling times are given in Figure 2. In lyophilized excreta of the individual turkeys of the DON group, maximum DON equivalent concentrations of DON-3-sulfate ranged from 8.8 to 16 μg/g and were obtained between 2 h (mean concentration 9.6 μg/g) and 4 h (mean concentration 8.8 μg/g) after provision of feed. Maximum DON equivalent concentrations of DOM-3-sulfate in excreta of turkeys of the DOM group were measured in excreta collected 2 h after start of feeding and ranged between 5.3 and 18 μg/g (average 13 μg/g). Due to the presence of 0.3 mg/kg DON in feed of the DOM group, DON-3-sulfate was also excreted by turkeys of the DOM group. The excretion pattern was similar to that of DOM-3-sulfate, with a maximum mean value of 2.5 μg/g in DON equivalents. A chromatogram of a turkey excreta extract of the DOM group is given in Figure 1.


Metabolism of deoxynivalenol and deepoxy-deoxynivalenol in broiler chickens, pullets, roosters and turkeys.

Schwartz-Zimmermann HE, Fruhmann P, Dänicke S, Wiesenberger G, Caha S, Weber J, Berthiller F - Toxins (Basel) (2015)

Average DON equivalent concentrations ± standard deviation (n = 4) of DON-3-sulfate and DOM-3-sulfate in excreta of turkeys and chickens at different sampling times (turkeys: 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 11, 15 and 24 h after start of feeding; chickens: 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 24 h after start of feeding).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4663529&req=5

toxins-07-04706-f002: Average DON equivalent concentrations ± standard deviation (n = 4) of DON-3-sulfate and DOM-3-sulfate in excreta of turkeys and chickens at different sampling times (turkeys: 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 11, 15 and 24 h after start of feeding; chickens: 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 24 h after start of feeding).
Mentions: Both in turkeys and in chickens, DON-3-sulfate was the major DON metabolite, followed by DON. Analogous to that, DOM-3-sulfate turned out to be the major metabolite of orally administered DOM. DOM itself could not be detected in any of the excreta samples of the turkey and the chicken trial, nor could any of the DON- or DOM sulfonates. The average DON equivalent concentrations of the main DON- and DOM metabolites in excreta of turkeys and chickens (n = 4 for each species) at the individual sampling times are given in Figure 2. In lyophilized excreta of the individual turkeys of the DON group, maximum DON equivalent concentrations of DON-3-sulfate ranged from 8.8 to 16 μg/g and were obtained between 2 h (mean concentration 9.6 μg/g) and 4 h (mean concentration 8.8 μg/g) after provision of feed. Maximum DON equivalent concentrations of DOM-3-sulfate in excreta of turkeys of the DOM group were measured in excreta collected 2 h after start of feeding and ranged between 5.3 and 18 μg/g (average 13 μg/g). Due to the presence of 0.3 mg/kg DON in feed of the DOM group, DON-3-sulfate was also excreted by turkeys of the DOM group. The excretion pattern was similar to that of DOM-3-sulfate, with a maximum mean value of 2.5 μg/g in DON equivalents. A chromatogram of a turkey excreta extract of the DOM group is given in Figure 1.

Bottom Line: Recently, deoxynivalenol-3-sulfate (DON-3-sulfate) was proposed as a major DON metabolite in poultry.In pullets, DON-3-sulfate concentrations increased from jejunum chyme samples to excreta samples by a factor of 60.This result, put into context with earlier studies, indicates fast and efficient absorption of DON between crop and jejunum, conversion to DON-3-sulfate in intestinal mucosa, liver, and possibly kidney, and rapid elimination into excreta via bile and urine.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Christian Doppler Laboratory for Mycotoxin Metabolism, Center for Analytical Chemistry, Department of Agrobiotechnology (IFA-Tulln), University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Tulln 3430, Austria. heidi.schwartz@boku.ac.at.

ABSTRACT
Recently, deoxynivalenol-3-sulfate (DON-3-sulfate) was proposed as a major DON metabolite in poultry. In the present work, the first LC-MS/MS based method for determination of DON-3-sulfate, deepoxy-DON-3-sulfate (DOM-3-sulfate), DON, DOM, DON sulfonates 1, 2, 3, and DOM sulfonate 2 in excreta samples of chickens and turkeys was developed and validated. To this end, DOM-3-sulfate was chemically synthesized and characterized by NMR and LC-HR-MS/MS measurements. Application of the method to excreta and chyme samples of four feeding trials with turkeys, chickens, pullets, and roosters confirmed DON-3-sulfate as the major DON metabolite in all poultry species studied. Analogously to DON-3-sulfate, DOM-3-sulfate was formed after oral administration of DOM both in turkeys and in chickens. In addition, pullets and roosters metabolized DON into DOM-3-sulfate. In vitro transcription/translation assays revealed DOM-3-sulfate to be 2000 times less toxic on the ribosome than DON. Biological recoveries of DON and DOM orally administered to broiler chickens, turkeys, and pullets were 74%-106% (chickens), 51%-72% (roosters), and 131%-151% (pullets). In pullets, DON-3-sulfate concentrations increased from jejunum chyme samples to excreta samples by a factor of 60. This result, put into context with earlier studies, indicates fast and efficient absorption of DON between crop and jejunum, conversion to DON-3-sulfate in intestinal mucosa, liver, and possibly kidney, and rapid elimination into excreta via bile and urine.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus