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The effects of low doses of two Fusarium toxins, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol, on the pig jejunum. A light and electron microscopic study.

Przybylska-Gornowicz B, Tarasiuk M, Lewczuk B, Prusik M, Ziółkowska N, Zielonka Ł, Gajęcki M, Gajęcka M - Toxins (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: In group M, lymphocyte counts in the epithelium and the lamina propria increased significantly after six weeks.Neither mycotoxin induced significant adverse changes in the ultrastructure of the mucosal epithelium and the lamina propria or in the intestinal barrier permeability.Our results indicate that immune cells are the principal target of low doses of ZEN and DON.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego 13, 10-718 Olsztyn, Poland. przybylb@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Immature gilts were administered per os with zearalenone (ZEN) at 40 μg/kg BW (group Z, n = 9), deoxynivalenol (DON) at 12 μg/kg BW (group D, n = 9), a mixture of ZEN and DON (group M, n = 9) or a placebo (group C, n = 9) over a period of six weeks. The pigs were sacrificed after one, three, or six weeks of the treatment (12 pigs per each time-point). Histological investigations revealed an increase in the mucosal thickness and the crypt depth as well as a decrease in the ratio of the villus height to the crypt depth in groups D and M after six weeks of exposure to the mycotoxins. The number of goblet cells in the villus epithelium was elevated in groups Z and M after one week and in group D after three weeks. The administration of ZEN increased the lymphocyte number in the villus epithelium after 1 week and the plasma cell quantity in the lamina propria after one, three, and six weeks of the experiment. DON treatment resulted in an increase in the lymphocyte number in the villus epithelium and the lamina propria after six weeks, and in the plasma cell quantity in the lamina propria after one, three, and six weeks of exposure. In group M, lymphocyte counts in the epithelium and the lamina propria increased significantly after six weeks. Neither mycotoxin induced significant adverse changes in the ultrastructure of the mucosal epithelium and the lamina propria or in the intestinal barrier permeability. Our results indicate that immune cells are the principal target of low doses of ZEN and DON.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

The apical parts of enterocytes in samples fixed using lanthanum nitrate. Note that no deposits are present in the intercellular spaces below the tight junctions. (A,B) The jejunum of a control pig fixed after six weeks of the experiment; (C) The jejunum of a pig treated with DON for six weeks; (D) The jejunum of a pig treated with ZEN for six weeks.
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toxins-07-04684-f011: The apical parts of enterocytes in samples fixed using lanthanum nitrate. Note that no deposits are present in the intercellular spaces below the tight junctions. (A,B) The jejunum of a control pig fixed after six weeks of the experiment; (C) The jejunum of a pig treated with DON for six weeks; (D) The jejunum of a pig treated with ZEN for six weeks.

Mentions: In order to check the effect of mycotoxins on permeability of the epithelial barrier, the samples were fixed using the lanthanum technique, which is the gold standard in the studies of tight junctions at an ultrastructural level [57,58,59]. In all of the samples, the electron dense lanthanum particles were observed between the microvilli, on the surface of cell membrane and in the most apical parts of the intercellular spaces above the tight junctions (Figure 11). However, no deposits were present in the intercellular spaces below the tight junctions (Figure 11); therefore, it could be concluded that DON and ZEN did not affect the permeability of the jejunal epithelium at the doses used. It should be noted that a proposed mechanism for DON action includes a reduction in claudin and occludin expression [12,13].


The effects of low doses of two Fusarium toxins, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol, on the pig jejunum. A light and electron microscopic study.

Przybylska-Gornowicz B, Tarasiuk M, Lewczuk B, Prusik M, Ziółkowska N, Zielonka Ł, Gajęcki M, Gajęcka M - Toxins (Basel) (2015)

The apical parts of enterocytes in samples fixed using lanthanum nitrate. Note that no deposits are present in the intercellular spaces below the tight junctions. (A,B) The jejunum of a control pig fixed after six weeks of the experiment; (C) The jejunum of a pig treated with DON for six weeks; (D) The jejunum of a pig treated with ZEN for six weeks.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4663528&req=5

toxins-07-04684-f011: The apical parts of enterocytes in samples fixed using lanthanum nitrate. Note that no deposits are present in the intercellular spaces below the tight junctions. (A,B) The jejunum of a control pig fixed after six weeks of the experiment; (C) The jejunum of a pig treated with DON for six weeks; (D) The jejunum of a pig treated with ZEN for six weeks.
Mentions: In order to check the effect of mycotoxins on permeability of the epithelial barrier, the samples were fixed using the lanthanum technique, which is the gold standard in the studies of tight junctions at an ultrastructural level [57,58,59]. In all of the samples, the electron dense lanthanum particles were observed between the microvilli, on the surface of cell membrane and in the most apical parts of the intercellular spaces above the tight junctions (Figure 11). However, no deposits were present in the intercellular spaces below the tight junctions (Figure 11); therefore, it could be concluded that DON and ZEN did not affect the permeability of the jejunal epithelium at the doses used. It should be noted that a proposed mechanism for DON action includes a reduction in claudin and occludin expression [12,13].

Bottom Line: In group M, lymphocyte counts in the epithelium and the lamina propria increased significantly after six weeks.Neither mycotoxin induced significant adverse changes in the ultrastructure of the mucosal epithelium and the lamina propria or in the intestinal barrier permeability.Our results indicate that immune cells are the principal target of low doses of ZEN and DON.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego 13, 10-718 Olsztyn, Poland. przybylb@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Immature gilts were administered per os with zearalenone (ZEN) at 40 μg/kg BW (group Z, n = 9), deoxynivalenol (DON) at 12 μg/kg BW (group D, n = 9), a mixture of ZEN and DON (group M, n = 9) or a placebo (group C, n = 9) over a period of six weeks. The pigs were sacrificed after one, three, or six weeks of the treatment (12 pigs per each time-point). Histological investigations revealed an increase in the mucosal thickness and the crypt depth as well as a decrease in the ratio of the villus height to the crypt depth in groups D and M after six weeks of exposure to the mycotoxins. The number of goblet cells in the villus epithelium was elevated in groups Z and M after one week and in group D after three weeks. The administration of ZEN increased the lymphocyte number in the villus epithelium after 1 week and the plasma cell quantity in the lamina propria after one, three, and six weeks of the experiment. DON treatment resulted in an increase in the lymphocyte number in the villus epithelium and the lamina propria after six weeks, and in the plasma cell quantity in the lamina propria after one, three, and six weeks of exposure. In group M, lymphocyte counts in the epithelium and the lamina propria increased significantly after six weeks. Neither mycotoxin induced significant adverse changes in the ultrastructure of the mucosal epithelium and the lamina propria or in the intestinal barrier permeability. Our results indicate that immune cells are the principal target of low doses of ZEN and DON.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus