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The effects of low doses of two Fusarium toxins, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol, on the pig jejunum. A light and electron microscopic study.

Przybylska-Gornowicz B, Tarasiuk M, Lewczuk B, Prusik M, Ziółkowska N, Zielonka Ł, Gajęcki M, Gajęcka M - Toxins (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: In group M, lymphocyte counts in the epithelium and the lamina propria increased significantly after six weeks.Neither mycotoxin induced significant adverse changes in the ultrastructure of the mucosal epithelium and the lamina propria or in the intestinal barrier permeability.Our results indicate that immune cells are the principal target of low doses of ZEN and DON.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego 13, 10-718 Olsztyn, Poland. przybylb@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Immature gilts were administered per os with zearalenone (ZEN) at 40 μg/kg BW (group Z, n = 9), deoxynivalenol (DON) at 12 μg/kg BW (group D, n = 9), a mixture of ZEN and DON (group M, n = 9) or a placebo (group C, n = 9) over a period of six weeks. The pigs were sacrificed after one, three, or six weeks of the treatment (12 pigs per each time-point). Histological investigations revealed an increase in the mucosal thickness and the crypt depth as well as a decrease in the ratio of the villus height to the crypt depth in groups D and M after six weeks of exposure to the mycotoxins. The number of goblet cells in the villus epithelium was elevated in groups Z and M after one week and in group D after three weeks. The administration of ZEN increased the lymphocyte number in the villus epithelium after 1 week and the plasma cell quantity in the lamina propria after one, three, and six weeks of the experiment. DON treatment resulted in an increase in the lymphocyte number in the villus epithelium and the lamina propria after six weeks, and in the plasma cell quantity in the lamina propria after one, three, and six weeks of exposure. In group M, lymphocyte counts in the epithelium and the lamina propria increased significantly after six weeks. Neither mycotoxin induced significant adverse changes in the ultrastructure of the mucosal epithelium and the lamina propria or in the intestinal barrier permeability. Our results indicate that immune cells are the principal target of low doses of ZEN and DON.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Ultrastructure of the jejunal mucosa lamina propria in a pig that received DON for six weeks. (A) Plasma cells (P) and myocyte (M) in the villus; (B) Macrophage (M) and lymphocyte (L) in the stroma between the intestinal crypts.
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toxins-07-04684-f010: Ultrastructure of the jejunal mucosa lamina propria in a pig that received DON for six weeks. (A) Plasma cells (P) and myocyte (M) in the villus; (B) Macrophage (M) and lymphocyte (L) in the stroma between the intestinal crypts.

Mentions: The lamina propria of the jejunum of pigs treated with mycotoxins was formed by a loose connective tissue with numerous cells: fibrocytes and fibroblasts, lymphocytes, plasma cells, mast cells, eosinophils, and macrophages (Figure 10). Myocytes were observed inside of the villi (Figure 10). The difference between the groups was due to plasma cells, which were more numerous in the lamina propria of gilts treated with ZEN or DON for one, three, and six weeks than in the control pigs.


The effects of low doses of two Fusarium toxins, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol, on the pig jejunum. A light and electron microscopic study.

Przybylska-Gornowicz B, Tarasiuk M, Lewczuk B, Prusik M, Ziółkowska N, Zielonka Ł, Gajęcki M, Gajęcka M - Toxins (Basel) (2015)

Ultrastructure of the jejunal mucosa lamina propria in a pig that received DON for six weeks. (A) Plasma cells (P) and myocyte (M) in the villus; (B) Macrophage (M) and lymphocyte (L) in the stroma between the intestinal crypts.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4663528&req=5

toxins-07-04684-f010: Ultrastructure of the jejunal mucosa lamina propria in a pig that received DON for six weeks. (A) Plasma cells (P) and myocyte (M) in the villus; (B) Macrophage (M) and lymphocyte (L) in the stroma between the intestinal crypts.
Mentions: The lamina propria of the jejunum of pigs treated with mycotoxins was formed by a loose connective tissue with numerous cells: fibrocytes and fibroblasts, lymphocytes, plasma cells, mast cells, eosinophils, and macrophages (Figure 10). Myocytes were observed inside of the villi (Figure 10). The difference between the groups was due to plasma cells, which were more numerous in the lamina propria of gilts treated with ZEN or DON for one, three, and six weeks than in the control pigs.

Bottom Line: In group M, lymphocyte counts in the epithelium and the lamina propria increased significantly after six weeks.Neither mycotoxin induced significant adverse changes in the ultrastructure of the mucosal epithelium and the lamina propria or in the intestinal barrier permeability.Our results indicate that immune cells are the principal target of low doses of ZEN and DON.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego 13, 10-718 Olsztyn, Poland. przybylb@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Immature gilts were administered per os with zearalenone (ZEN) at 40 μg/kg BW (group Z, n = 9), deoxynivalenol (DON) at 12 μg/kg BW (group D, n = 9), a mixture of ZEN and DON (group M, n = 9) or a placebo (group C, n = 9) over a period of six weeks. The pigs were sacrificed after one, three, or six weeks of the treatment (12 pigs per each time-point). Histological investigations revealed an increase in the mucosal thickness and the crypt depth as well as a decrease in the ratio of the villus height to the crypt depth in groups D and M after six weeks of exposure to the mycotoxins. The number of goblet cells in the villus epithelium was elevated in groups Z and M after one week and in group D after three weeks. The administration of ZEN increased the lymphocyte number in the villus epithelium after 1 week and the plasma cell quantity in the lamina propria after one, three, and six weeks of the experiment. DON treatment resulted in an increase in the lymphocyte number in the villus epithelium and the lamina propria after six weeks, and in the plasma cell quantity in the lamina propria after one, three, and six weeks of exposure. In group M, lymphocyte counts in the epithelium and the lamina propria increased significantly after six weeks. Neither mycotoxin induced significant adverse changes in the ultrastructure of the mucosal epithelium and the lamina propria or in the intestinal barrier permeability. Our results indicate that immune cells are the principal target of low doses of ZEN and DON.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus