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The effects of low doses of two Fusarium toxins, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol, on the pig jejunum. A light and electron microscopic study.

Przybylska-Gornowicz B, Tarasiuk M, Lewczuk B, Prusik M, Ziółkowska N, Zielonka Ł, Gajęcki M, Gajęcka M - Toxins (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: In group M, lymphocyte counts in the epithelium and the lamina propria increased significantly after six weeks.Neither mycotoxin induced significant adverse changes in the ultrastructure of the mucosal epithelium and the lamina propria or in the intestinal barrier permeability.Our results indicate that immune cells are the principal target of low doses of ZEN and DON.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego 13, 10-718 Olsztyn, Poland. przybylb@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Immature gilts were administered per os with zearalenone (ZEN) at 40 μg/kg BW (group Z, n = 9), deoxynivalenol (DON) at 12 μg/kg BW (group D, n = 9), a mixture of ZEN and DON (group M, n = 9) or a placebo (group C, n = 9) over a period of six weeks. The pigs were sacrificed after one, three, or six weeks of the treatment (12 pigs per each time-point). Histological investigations revealed an increase in the mucosal thickness and the crypt depth as well as a decrease in the ratio of the villus height to the crypt depth in groups D and M after six weeks of exposure to the mycotoxins. The number of goblet cells in the villus epithelium was elevated in groups Z and M after one week and in group D after three weeks. The administration of ZEN increased the lymphocyte number in the villus epithelium after 1 week and the plasma cell quantity in the lamina propria after one, three, and six weeks of the experiment. DON treatment resulted in an increase in the lymphocyte number in the villus epithelium and the lamina propria after six weeks, and in the plasma cell quantity in the lamina propria after one, three, and six weeks of exposure. In group M, lymphocyte counts in the epithelium and the lamina propria increased significantly after six weeks. Neither mycotoxin induced significant adverse changes in the ultrastructure of the mucosal epithelium and the lamina propria or in the intestinal barrier permeability. Our results indicate that immune cells are the principal target of low doses of ZEN and DON.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Immune system cells in the jejunum. (A) Number of lymphocytes in the villus epithelium (per 50 epithelial cells); (B) Number of lymphocytes in the lamina propria (per 10,000 µm2); (C) Number of plasma cells in the lamina propria (per 10,000 µm2). Values presented are the mean and SEM. For explanations, see Figure 2.
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toxins-07-04684-f004: Immune system cells in the jejunum. (A) Number of lymphocytes in the villus epithelium (per 50 epithelial cells); (B) Number of lymphocytes in the lamina propria (per 10,000 µm2); (C) Number of plasma cells in the lamina propria (per 10,000 µm2). Values presented are the mean and SEM. For explanations, see Figure 2.

Mentions: The results of quantitative analyses revealed a significant increase in the relative number of lymphocytes in the epithelium covering villi of the jejunum in group Z after one week and in groups D and M after six weeks of exposure compared to group C (Figure 4A). In the lamina propria, significantly higher counts of lymphocytes were found in groups D and M than in the control group after six weeks of exposure (Figure 4B).


The effects of low doses of two Fusarium toxins, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol, on the pig jejunum. A light and electron microscopic study.

Przybylska-Gornowicz B, Tarasiuk M, Lewczuk B, Prusik M, Ziółkowska N, Zielonka Ł, Gajęcki M, Gajęcka M - Toxins (Basel) (2015)

Immune system cells in the jejunum. (A) Number of lymphocytes in the villus epithelium (per 50 epithelial cells); (B) Number of lymphocytes in the lamina propria (per 10,000 µm2); (C) Number of plasma cells in the lamina propria (per 10,000 µm2). Values presented are the mean and SEM. For explanations, see Figure 2.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4663528&req=5

toxins-07-04684-f004: Immune system cells in the jejunum. (A) Number of lymphocytes in the villus epithelium (per 50 epithelial cells); (B) Number of lymphocytes in the lamina propria (per 10,000 µm2); (C) Number of plasma cells in the lamina propria (per 10,000 µm2). Values presented are the mean and SEM. For explanations, see Figure 2.
Mentions: The results of quantitative analyses revealed a significant increase in the relative number of lymphocytes in the epithelium covering villi of the jejunum in group Z after one week and in groups D and M after six weeks of exposure compared to group C (Figure 4A). In the lamina propria, significantly higher counts of lymphocytes were found in groups D and M than in the control group after six weeks of exposure (Figure 4B).

Bottom Line: In group M, lymphocyte counts in the epithelium and the lamina propria increased significantly after six weeks.Neither mycotoxin induced significant adverse changes in the ultrastructure of the mucosal epithelium and the lamina propria or in the intestinal barrier permeability.Our results indicate that immune cells are the principal target of low doses of ZEN and DON.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego 13, 10-718 Olsztyn, Poland. przybylb@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Immature gilts were administered per os with zearalenone (ZEN) at 40 μg/kg BW (group Z, n = 9), deoxynivalenol (DON) at 12 μg/kg BW (group D, n = 9), a mixture of ZEN and DON (group M, n = 9) or a placebo (group C, n = 9) over a period of six weeks. The pigs were sacrificed after one, three, or six weeks of the treatment (12 pigs per each time-point). Histological investigations revealed an increase in the mucosal thickness and the crypt depth as well as a decrease in the ratio of the villus height to the crypt depth in groups D and M after six weeks of exposure to the mycotoxins. The number of goblet cells in the villus epithelium was elevated in groups Z and M after one week and in group D after three weeks. The administration of ZEN increased the lymphocyte number in the villus epithelium after 1 week and the plasma cell quantity in the lamina propria after one, three, and six weeks of the experiment. DON treatment resulted in an increase in the lymphocyte number in the villus epithelium and the lamina propria after six weeks, and in the plasma cell quantity in the lamina propria after one, three, and six weeks of exposure. In group M, lymphocyte counts in the epithelium and the lamina propria increased significantly after six weeks. Neither mycotoxin induced significant adverse changes in the ultrastructure of the mucosal epithelium and the lamina propria or in the intestinal barrier permeability. Our results indicate that immune cells are the principal target of low doses of ZEN and DON.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus