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The effects of low doses of two Fusarium toxins, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol, on the pig jejunum. A light and electron microscopic study.

Przybylska-Gornowicz B, Tarasiuk M, Lewczuk B, Prusik M, Ziółkowska N, Zielonka Ł, Gajęcki M, Gajęcka M - Toxins (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: In group M, lymphocyte counts in the epithelium and the lamina propria increased significantly after six weeks.Neither mycotoxin induced significant adverse changes in the ultrastructure of the mucosal epithelium and the lamina propria or in the intestinal barrier permeability.Our results indicate that immune cells are the principal target of low doses of ZEN and DON.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego 13, 10-718 Olsztyn, Poland. przybylb@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Immature gilts were administered per os with zearalenone (ZEN) at 40 μg/kg BW (group Z, n = 9), deoxynivalenol (DON) at 12 μg/kg BW (group D, n = 9), a mixture of ZEN and DON (group M, n = 9) or a placebo (group C, n = 9) over a period of six weeks. The pigs were sacrificed after one, three, or six weeks of the treatment (12 pigs per each time-point). Histological investigations revealed an increase in the mucosal thickness and the crypt depth as well as a decrease in the ratio of the villus height to the crypt depth in groups D and M after six weeks of exposure to the mycotoxins. The number of goblet cells in the villus epithelium was elevated in groups Z and M after one week and in group D after three weeks. The administration of ZEN increased the lymphocyte number in the villus epithelium after 1 week and the plasma cell quantity in the lamina propria after one, three, and six weeks of the experiment. DON treatment resulted in an increase in the lymphocyte number in the villus epithelium and the lamina propria after six weeks, and in the plasma cell quantity in the lamina propria after one, three, and six weeks of exposure. In group M, lymphocyte counts in the epithelium and the lamina propria increased significantly after six weeks. Neither mycotoxin induced significant adverse changes in the ultrastructure of the mucosal epithelium and the lamina propria or in the intestinal barrier permeability. Our results indicate that immune cells are the principal target of low doses of ZEN and DON.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Morphometric characteristic of the jejunal mucosa. (A) Thickness of the mucosa; (B) Height of the villi; (C) Depth of the mucosal crypts; (D) The ratio of villus height to crypt depth. Values presented are means and SEM. The capital letters under horizontal axis: C—control group, Z—group treated with ZEN, D—group treated with DON, M—group treated with ZEN and DON. Means annotated with different lower case letters above the bars are significantly different at p ≤ 0.05.
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toxins-07-04684-f002: Morphometric characteristic of the jejunal mucosa. (A) Thickness of the mucosa; (B) Height of the villi; (C) Depth of the mucosal crypts; (D) The ratio of villus height to crypt depth. Values presented are means and SEM. The capital letters under horizontal axis: C—control group, Z—group treated with ZEN, D—group treated with DON, M—group treated with ZEN and DON. Means annotated with different lower case letters above the bars are significantly different at p ≤ 0.05.

Mentions: The administration of mycotoxins led to a significant increase in the mucosal thickness in the group receiving DON (D) and the group receiving DON + ZEN (M) compared to the control group (C) and the group receiving ZEN (Z) after six weeks of treatment (Figure 2A). No significant differences were noted after one and three weeks of treatment (Figure 2A). The villi and crypts constitute the structural and functional base for the small intestine function. A morphometric analysis of these mucosal structures revealed that only the crypts were affected by the mycotoxins (Figure 2B,C). A significant increase in the crypt depth was noted in groups D and M compared to the control group after six weeks of the toxins administration (Figure 2C). As a result of these changes, a significant decrease in the ratio of the villus height to the crypt depth was found in groups D and M after six weeks (Figure 2D).


The effects of low doses of two Fusarium toxins, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol, on the pig jejunum. A light and electron microscopic study.

Przybylska-Gornowicz B, Tarasiuk M, Lewczuk B, Prusik M, Ziółkowska N, Zielonka Ł, Gajęcki M, Gajęcka M - Toxins (Basel) (2015)

Morphometric characteristic of the jejunal mucosa. (A) Thickness of the mucosa; (B) Height of the villi; (C) Depth of the mucosal crypts; (D) The ratio of villus height to crypt depth. Values presented are means and SEM. The capital letters under horizontal axis: C—control group, Z—group treated with ZEN, D—group treated with DON, M—group treated with ZEN and DON. Means annotated with different lower case letters above the bars are significantly different at p ≤ 0.05.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4663528&req=5

toxins-07-04684-f002: Morphometric characteristic of the jejunal mucosa. (A) Thickness of the mucosa; (B) Height of the villi; (C) Depth of the mucosal crypts; (D) The ratio of villus height to crypt depth. Values presented are means and SEM. The capital letters under horizontal axis: C—control group, Z—group treated with ZEN, D—group treated with DON, M—group treated with ZEN and DON. Means annotated with different lower case letters above the bars are significantly different at p ≤ 0.05.
Mentions: The administration of mycotoxins led to a significant increase in the mucosal thickness in the group receiving DON (D) and the group receiving DON + ZEN (M) compared to the control group (C) and the group receiving ZEN (Z) after six weeks of treatment (Figure 2A). No significant differences were noted after one and three weeks of treatment (Figure 2A). The villi and crypts constitute the structural and functional base for the small intestine function. A morphometric analysis of these mucosal structures revealed that only the crypts were affected by the mycotoxins (Figure 2B,C). A significant increase in the crypt depth was noted in groups D and M compared to the control group after six weeks of the toxins administration (Figure 2C). As a result of these changes, a significant decrease in the ratio of the villus height to the crypt depth was found in groups D and M after six weeks (Figure 2D).

Bottom Line: In group M, lymphocyte counts in the epithelium and the lamina propria increased significantly after six weeks.Neither mycotoxin induced significant adverse changes in the ultrastructure of the mucosal epithelium and the lamina propria or in the intestinal barrier permeability.Our results indicate that immune cells are the principal target of low doses of ZEN and DON.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego 13, 10-718 Olsztyn, Poland. przybylb@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Immature gilts were administered per os with zearalenone (ZEN) at 40 μg/kg BW (group Z, n = 9), deoxynivalenol (DON) at 12 μg/kg BW (group D, n = 9), a mixture of ZEN and DON (group M, n = 9) or a placebo (group C, n = 9) over a period of six weeks. The pigs were sacrificed after one, three, or six weeks of the treatment (12 pigs per each time-point). Histological investigations revealed an increase in the mucosal thickness and the crypt depth as well as a decrease in the ratio of the villus height to the crypt depth in groups D and M after six weeks of exposure to the mycotoxins. The number of goblet cells in the villus epithelium was elevated in groups Z and M after one week and in group D after three weeks. The administration of ZEN increased the lymphocyte number in the villus epithelium after 1 week and the plasma cell quantity in the lamina propria after one, three, and six weeks of the experiment. DON treatment resulted in an increase in the lymphocyte number in the villus epithelium and the lamina propria after six weeks, and in the plasma cell quantity in the lamina propria after one, three, and six weeks of exposure. In group M, lymphocyte counts in the epithelium and the lamina propria increased significantly after six weeks. Neither mycotoxin induced significant adverse changes in the ultrastructure of the mucosal epithelium and the lamina propria or in the intestinal barrier permeability. Our results indicate that immune cells are the principal target of low doses of ZEN and DON.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus