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The effects of low doses of two Fusarium toxins, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol, on the pig jejunum. A light and electron microscopic study.

Przybylska-Gornowicz B, Tarasiuk M, Lewczuk B, Prusik M, Ziółkowska N, Zielonka Ł, Gajęcki M, Gajęcka M - Toxins (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: In group M, lymphocyte counts in the epithelium and the lamina propria increased significantly after six weeks.Neither mycotoxin induced significant adverse changes in the ultrastructure of the mucosal epithelium and the lamina propria or in the intestinal barrier permeability.Our results indicate that immune cells are the principal target of low doses of ZEN and DON.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego 13, 10-718 Olsztyn, Poland. przybylb@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Immature gilts were administered per os with zearalenone (ZEN) at 40 μg/kg BW (group Z, n = 9), deoxynivalenol (DON) at 12 μg/kg BW (group D, n = 9), a mixture of ZEN and DON (group M, n = 9) or a placebo (group C, n = 9) over a period of six weeks. The pigs were sacrificed after one, three, or six weeks of the treatment (12 pigs per each time-point). Histological investigations revealed an increase in the mucosal thickness and the crypt depth as well as a decrease in the ratio of the villus height to the crypt depth in groups D and M after six weeks of exposure to the mycotoxins. The number of goblet cells in the villus epithelium was elevated in groups Z and M after one week and in group D after three weeks. The administration of ZEN increased the lymphocyte number in the villus epithelium after 1 week and the plasma cell quantity in the lamina propria after one, three, and six weeks of the experiment. DON treatment resulted in an increase in the lymphocyte number in the villus epithelium and the lamina propria after six weeks, and in the plasma cell quantity in the lamina propria after one, three, and six weeks of exposure. In group M, lymphocyte counts in the epithelium and the lamina propria increased significantly after six weeks. Neither mycotoxin induced significant adverse changes in the ultrastructure of the mucosal epithelium and the lamina propria or in the intestinal barrier permeability. Our results indicate that immune cells are the principal target of low doses of ZEN and DON.

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Histological section of the jejunal wall of a control pig sacrificed at the end of the experiment. HE staining.
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toxins-07-04684-f001: Histological section of the jejunal wall of a control pig sacrificed at the end of the experiment. HE staining.

Mentions: The jejunum of the pre-pubertal gilts was characterized by well-developed, finger-shaped villi and numerous intestinal crypts inside the lamina propria (Figure 1). The mucosa was covered by a columnar epithelium comprising primarily absorptive enterocytes and goblet cells. Lymphocytes were present between the epithelial cells. The interior of the villi and the spaces between the crypts were filled with loose connective tissue containing numerous blood vessels and cells of the immune system—lymphocytes and plasma cells. The well-developed muscularis mucosa separated the mucosa from the tunica submucosa, which had a characteristic loose arrangement. The muscularis and the serosa also had a regular structure. No significant qualitative differences in the intestinal architecture were observed between the groups of animals investigated; however, the mycotoxins influenced the quantitative parameters of the mucosa.


The effects of low doses of two Fusarium toxins, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol, on the pig jejunum. A light and electron microscopic study.

Przybylska-Gornowicz B, Tarasiuk M, Lewczuk B, Prusik M, Ziółkowska N, Zielonka Ł, Gajęcki M, Gajęcka M - Toxins (Basel) (2015)

Histological section of the jejunal wall of a control pig sacrificed at the end of the experiment. HE staining.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4663528&req=5

toxins-07-04684-f001: Histological section of the jejunal wall of a control pig sacrificed at the end of the experiment. HE staining.
Mentions: The jejunum of the pre-pubertal gilts was characterized by well-developed, finger-shaped villi and numerous intestinal crypts inside the lamina propria (Figure 1). The mucosa was covered by a columnar epithelium comprising primarily absorptive enterocytes and goblet cells. Lymphocytes were present between the epithelial cells. The interior of the villi and the spaces between the crypts were filled with loose connective tissue containing numerous blood vessels and cells of the immune system—lymphocytes and plasma cells. The well-developed muscularis mucosa separated the mucosa from the tunica submucosa, which had a characteristic loose arrangement. The muscularis and the serosa also had a regular structure. No significant qualitative differences in the intestinal architecture were observed between the groups of animals investigated; however, the mycotoxins influenced the quantitative parameters of the mucosa.

Bottom Line: In group M, lymphocyte counts in the epithelium and the lamina propria increased significantly after six weeks.Neither mycotoxin induced significant adverse changes in the ultrastructure of the mucosal epithelium and the lamina propria or in the intestinal barrier permeability.Our results indicate that immune cells are the principal target of low doses of ZEN and DON.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego 13, 10-718 Olsztyn, Poland. przybylb@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Immature gilts were administered per os with zearalenone (ZEN) at 40 μg/kg BW (group Z, n = 9), deoxynivalenol (DON) at 12 μg/kg BW (group D, n = 9), a mixture of ZEN and DON (group M, n = 9) or a placebo (group C, n = 9) over a period of six weeks. The pigs were sacrificed after one, three, or six weeks of the treatment (12 pigs per each time-point). Histological investigations revealed an increase in the mucosal thickness and the crypt depth as well as a decrease in the ratio of the villus height to the crypt depth in groups D and M after six weeks of exposure to the mycotoxins. The number of goblet cells in the villus epithelium was elevated in groups Z and M after one week and in group D after three weeks. The administration of ZEN increased the lymphocyte number in the villus epithelium after 1 week and the plasma cell quantity in the lamina propria after one, three, and six weeks of the experiment. DON treatment resulted in an increase in the lymphocyte number in the villus epithelium and the lamina propria after six weeks, and in the plasma cell quantity in the lamina propria after one, three, and six weeks of exposure. In group M, lymphocyte counts in the epithelium and the lamina propria increased significantly after six weeks. Neither mycotoxin induced significant adverse changes in the ultrastructure of the mucosal epithelium and the lamina propria or in the intestinal barrier permeability. Our results indicate that immune cells are the principal target of low doses of ZEN and DON.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus