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Studies on the bioavailability of deoxynivalenol (DON) and DON sulfonate (DONS) 1, 2, and 3 in pigs fed with sodium sulfite-treated DON-contaminated maize.

Paulick M, Winkler J, Kersten S, Schatzmayr D, Schwartz-Zimmermann HE, Dänicke S - Toxins (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: Wet preservation with sodium sulfite resulted in a significant DON reduction of naturally-contaminated maize in previous experiments.The results showed further that the bioavailability of DONS as DON in pigs fed maize preserved wet with sodium sulfite was significantly decreased compared to untreated control maize (DON), indicating that DONS obviously did not convert back to DON to a large extent in vivo.Moreover, the fact that DONS was not detectable in systemic blood requires further investigations regarding their ingestive and/or metabolic fate.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Animal Nutrition, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute (FLI), Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig, Germany. marleen.paulick@fli.bund.de.

ABSTRACT
Deoxynivalenol (DON) exposure of pigs might cause serious problems when critical dietary toxin concentrations are exceeded. As DON contamination of agricultural crops cannot be completely prevented, detoxification measures are needed. Wet preservation with sodium sulfite resulted in a significant DON reduction of naturally-contaminated maize in previous experiments. The preserved material had a characteristic DON sulfonates (DONS) pattern. DONS is known to be less toxic than DON but its stability was shown to depend on pH, which gives rise to the question if a back-conversion to DON occurs in vivo. Therefore, the toxicokinetics and bioavailability of DON and DONS were studied in pigs. After the administration of a single oral or intravenous bolus of DON or DONS, serial blood samples were collected and subsequently analyzed. DONS was not detectable after oral administration of DONS mixtures. The results showed further that the bioavailability of DONS as DON in pigs fed maize preserved wet with sodium sulfite was significantly decreased compared to untreated control maize (DON), indicating that DONS obviously did not convert back to DON to a large extent in vivo. Moreover, the fact that DONS was not detectable in systemic blood requires further investigations regarding their ingestive and/or metabolic fate.

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Plasma concentration-time curves after feeding with MK37/MM37 and MK79/MM79 (means) illustrated the DON kinetic as well as DONS 2 also detected in minor extent after MK79/MM79.
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toxins-07-04622-f005: Plasma concentration-time curves after feeding with MK37/MM37 and MK79/MM79 (means) illustrated the DON kinetic as well as DONS 2 also detected in minor extent after MK79/MM79.

Mentions: Although only DONS was detected in sodium sulfite wet-treated MM and MK, DON was detected in plasma samples but at much lower levels compared to NDON group. The DONS exposure ranged between 67.78 to 95.59 µg/kg BW, but no DONS 1, was detected in any plasma samples and tiny amounts of DONS 2 could be determined in plasma samples of variants MK79 and MM79 (LOD < x < LOQ). Maximum concentrations were only 1.10 and 0.82 ng/mL DON equivalents. The mean peak concentration of DON amounted to 7.24 ng/mL fed with MK37 or MM37 (Table 5) as well as 4.33 ng/mL for MK79 or MM79 (Table 6). In Figure 5, plasma concentration-time curves of pigs fed different preserved variants were compared. Additionally, DONS 2 concentrations after oral administration of MK79 and MM79 are shown. The area under the curve (AUC, means) for MK37/MM37 and MK79/MM79 were reduced by 89.2% and 94.5% in comparison to the negative DON control group. The plasma clearance of all tested pigs was 6.11 ± 2.06 mL/kg min and was only a half of the DON oral group.


Studies on the bioavailability of deoxynivalenol (DON) and DON sulfonate (DONS) 1, 2, and 3 in pigs fed with sodium sulfite-treated DON-contaminated maize.

Paulick M, Winkler J, Kersten S, Schatzmayr D, Schwartz-Zimmermann HE, Dänicke S - Toxins (Basel) (2015)

Plasma concentration-time curves after feeding with MK37/MM37 and MK79/MM79 (means) illustrated the DON kinetic as well as DONS 2 also detected in minor extent after MK79/MM79.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4663524&req=5

toxins-07-04622-f005: Plasma concentration-time curves after feeding with MK37/MM37 and MK79/MM79 (means) illustrated the DON kinetic as well as DONS 2 also detected in minor extent after MK79/MM79.
Mentions: Although only DONS was detected in sodium sulfite wet-treated MM and MK, DON was detected in plasma samples but at much lower levels compared to NDON group. The DONS exposure ranged between 67.78 to 95.59 µg/kg BW, but no DONS 1, was detected in any plasma samples and tiny amounts of DONS 2 could be determined in plasma samples of variants MK79 and MM79 (LOD < x < LOQ). Maximum concentrations were only 1.10 and 0.82 ng/mL DON equivalents. The mean peak concentration of DON amounted to 7.24 ng/mL fed with MK37 or MM37 (Table 5) as well as 4.33 ng/mL for MK79 or MM79 (Table 6). In Figure 5, plasma concentration-time curves of pigs fed different preserved variants were compared. Additionally, DONS 2 concentrations after oral administration of MK79 and MM79 are shown. The area under the curve (AUC, means) for MK37/MM37 and MK79/MM79 were reduced by 89.2% and 94.5% in comparison to the negative DON control group. The plasma clearance of all tested pigs was 6.11 ± 2.06 mL/kg min and was only a half of the DON oral group.

Bottom Line: Wet preservation with sodium sulfite resulted in a significant DON reduction of naturally-contaminated maize in previous experiments.The results showed further that the bioavailability of DONS as DON in pigs fed maize preserved wet with sodium sulfite was significantly decreased compared to untreated control maize (DON), indicating that DONS obviously did not convert back to DON to a large extent in vivo.Moreover, the fact that DONS was not detectable in systemic blood requires further investigations regarding their ingestive and/or metabolic fate.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Animal Nutrition, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute (FLI), Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig, Germany. marleen.paulick@fli.bund.de.

ABSTRACT
Deoxynivalenol (DON) exposure of pigs might cause serious problems when critical dietary toxin concentrations are exceeded. As DON contamination of agricultural crops cannot be completely prevented, detoxification measures are needed. Wet preservation with sodium sulfite resulted in a significant DON reduction of naturally-contaminated maize in previous experiments. The preserved material had a characteristic DON sulfonates (DONS) pattern. DONS is known to be less toxic than DON but its stability was shown to depend on pH, which gives rise to the question if a back-conversion to DON occurs in vivo. Therefore, the toxicokinetics and bioavailability of DON and DONS were studied in pigs. After the administration of a single oral or intravenous bolus of DON or DONS, serial blood samples were collected and subsequently analyzed. DONS was not detectable after oral administration of DONS mixtures. The results showed further that the bioavailability of DONS as DON in pigs fed maize preserved wet with sodium sulfite was significantly decreased compared to untreated control maize (DON), indicating that DONS obviously did not convert back to DON to a large extent in vivo. Moreover, the fact that DONS was not detectable in systemic blood requires further investigations regarding their ingestive and/or metabolic fate.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus