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Studies on the bioavailability of deoxynivalenol (DON) and DON sulfonate (DONS) 1, 2, and 3 in pigs fed with sodium sulfite-treated DON-contaminated maize.

Paulick M, Winkler J, Kersten S, Schatzmayr D, Schwartz-Zimmermann HE, Dänicke S - Toxins (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: Wet preservation with sodium sulfite resulted in a significant DON reduction of naturally-contaminated maize in previous experiments.The results showed further that the bioavailability of DONS as DON in pigs fed maize preserved wet with sodium sulfite was significantly decreased compared to untreated control maize (DON), indicating that DONS obviously did not convert back to DON to a large extent in vivo.Moreover, the fact that DONS was not detectable in systemic blood requires further investigations regarding their ingestive and/or metabolic fate.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Animal Nutrition, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute (FLI), Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig, Germany. marleen.paulick@fli.bund.de.

ABSTRACT
Deoxynivalenol (DON) exposure of pigs might cause serious problems when critical dietary toxin concentrations are exceeded. As DON contamination of agricultural crops cannot be completely prevented, detoxification measures are needed. Wet preservation with sodium sulfite resulted in a significant DON reduction of naturally-contaminated maize in previous experiments. The preserved material had a characteristic DON sulfonates (DONS) pattern. DONS is known to be less toxic than DON but its stability was shown to depend on pH, which gives rise to the question if a back-conversion to DON occurs in vivo. Therefore, the toxicokinetics and bioavailability of DON and DONS were studied in pigs. After the administration of a single oral or intravenous bolus of DON or DONS, serial blood samples were collected and subsequently analyzed. DONS was not detectable after oral administration of DONS mixtures. The results showed further that the bioavailability of DONS as DON in pigs fed maize preserved wet with sodium sulfite was significantly decreased compared to untreated control maize (DON), indicating that DONS obviously did not convert back to DON to a large extent in vivo. Moreover, the fact that DONS was not detectable in systemic blood requires further investigations regarding their ingestive and/or metabolic fate.

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Plasma kinetic of pigs (means) after intravenous application of 50 µg DONS mixture per kg BW as well as DONS ratio in injected bolus (inserted table).
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toxins-07-04622-f002: Plasma kinetic of pigs (means) after intravenous application of 50 µg DONS mixture per kg BW as well as DONS ratio in injected bolus (inserted table).

Mentions: The mean plasma concentrations of each DON sulfonate are shown in Figure 2. Additionally, the proportions of DONS 1, 2 and 3 in standard as well as bolus solutions were compared in the little inserted table (Figure 2). Only DONS 1 and 2, as well as DON were detectable in bolus solution despite the marked presence of DONS 3 in the standard solution. The comparison of pH values in standard and bolus solution revealed 1.56 and 2.66. Derived from the plasma concentrations after injection, it could be observed that DONS 1 and 2 were stable in plasma with peak concentrations (mean of A + B) of 171.4 ng/mL and 79.9 ng/mL. In contrast, DONS 3 was only detected to a very small extent (LOD < x < LOQ) and the peak concentration achieved 2.39 ng/mL DON equivalents (mean). In the following, concentration data of DONS in ng/mL were already converted in ng/mL DON equivalents because of the higher molecular mass of DONS compared to DON. Twenty minutes after bolus, no more DONS 3 could be determined whereas the plasma clearance of DONS 1 and 2 amounted to 5.0 ± 0.4 mL/kg min and 9.9 ± 1.1 mL/kg min (Table 2). The area under the curve (AUC) was 168.2 ± 13.9 ng·h/mL and 85.8 ± 10.9 ng·h/mL for DONS 1 and 2, respectively.


Studies on the bioavailability of deoxynivalenol (DON) and DON sulfonate (DONS) 1, 2, and 3 in pigs fed with sodium sulfite-treated DON-contaminated maize.

Paulick M, Winkler J, Kersten S, Schatzmayr D, Schwartz-Zimmermann HE, Dänicke S - Toxins (Basel) (2015)

Plasma kinetic of pigs (means) after intravenous application of 50 µg DONS mixture per kg BW as well as DONS ratio in injected bolus (inserted table).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4663524&req=5

toxins-07-04622-f002: Plasma kinetic of pigs (means) after intravenous application of 50 µg DONS mixture per kg BW as well as DONS ratio in injected bolus (inserted table).
Mentions: The mean plasma concentrations of each DON sulfonate are shown in Figure 2. Additionally, the proportions of DONS 1, 2 and 3 in standard as well as bolus solutions were compared in the little inserted table (Figure 2). Only DONS 1 and 2, as well as DON were detectable in bolus solution despite the marked presence of DONS 3 in the standard solution. The comparison of pH values in standard and bolus solution revealed 1.56 and 2.66. Derived from the plasma concentrations after injection, it could be observed that DONS 1 and 2 were stable in plasma with peak concentrations (mean of A + B) of 171.4 ng/mL and 79.9 ng/mL. In contrast, DONS 3 was only detected to a very small extent (LOD < x < LOQ) and the peak concentration achieved 2.39 ng/mL DON equivalents (mean). In the following, concentration data of DONS in ng/mL were already converted in ng/mL DON equivalents because of the higher molecular mass of DONS compared to DON. Twenty minutes after bolus, no more DONS 3 could be determined whereas the plasma clearance of DONS 1 and 2 amounted to 5.0 ± 0.4 mL/kg min and 9.9 ± 1.1 mL/kg min (Table 2). The area under the curve (AUC) was 168.2 ± 13.9 ng·h/mL and 85.8 ± 10.9 ng·h/mL for DONS 1 and 2, respectively.

Bottom Line: Wet preservation with sodium sulfite resulted in a significant DON reduction of naturally-contaminated maize in previous experiments.The results showed further that the bioavailability of DONS as DON in pigs fed maize preserved wet with sodium sulfite was significantly decreased compared to untreated control maize (DON), indicating that DONS obviously did not convert back to DON to a large extent in vivo.Moreover, the fact that DONS was not detectable in systemic blood requires further investigations regarding their ingestive and/or metabolic fate.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Animal Nutrition, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute (FLI), Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig, Germany. marleen.paulick@fli.bund.de.

ABSTRACT
Deoxynivalenol (DON) exposure of pigs might cause serious problems when critical dietary toxin concentrations are exceeded. As DON contamination of agricultural crops cannot be completely prevented, detoxification measures are needed. Wet preservation with sodium sulfite resulted in a significant DON reduction of naturally-contaminated maize in previous experiments. The preserved material had a characteristic DON sulfonates (DONS) pattern. DONS is known to be less toxic than DON but its stability was shown to depend on pH, which gives rise to the question if a back-conversion to DON occurs in vivo. Therefore, the toxicokinetics and bioavailability of DON and DONS were studied in pigs. After the administration of a single oral or intravenous bolus of DON or DONS, serial blood samples were collected and subsequently analyzed. DONS was not detectable after oral administration of DONS mixtures. The results showed further that the bioavailability of DONS as DON in pigs fed maize preserved wet with sodium sulfite was significantly decreased compared to untreated control maize (DON), indicating that DONS obviously did not convert back to DON to a large extent in vivo. Moreover, the fact that DONS was not detectable in systemic blood requires further investigations regarding their ingestive and/or metabolic fate.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus