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Nodularia spumigena peptides--accumulation and effect on aquatic invertebrates.

Mazur-Marzec H, Sutryk K, Hebel A, Hohlfeld N, Pietrasik A, Błaszczyk A - Toxins (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: Thus far, the negative effects of Nodularia spumigena blooms on aquatic organisms have been mainly attributed to the production of the hepatotoxic nodularin (NOD).Exposure of T. platyurus and A. franciscana to N. spumigena extract confirmed the negative effect of nodularin on the organisms.These findings indicate that cyanobacterial toxicity to aquatic organisms is a complex phenomenon and the induced effects can be attributed to diverse metabolites, not only to the known hepatotoxins.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Marine Biotechnology, Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdańsk, Al. Marszałka Piłsudskiego 46, 81-378 Gdynia, Poland. biohm@ug.edu.pl.

ABSTRACT
Thus far, the negative effects of Nodularia spumigena blooms on aquatic organisms have been mainly attributed to the production of the hepatotoxic nodularin (NOD). In the current work, the accumulation of other N. spumigena metabolites in blue mussels and crustaceans, and their effect on Thamnocephalus platyurus and Artemia franciscana, were examined. The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses provided evidence that both blue mussels collected after a cyanobacterial bloom in the Baltic Sea and the crustaceans exposed under laboratory conditions to N. spumigena extract accumulated the cyclic anabaenopeptins (APs). In the crustaceans, the linear peptides, spumigins (SPUs) and aeruginosins (AERs), were additionally detected. Exposure of T. platyurus and A. franciscana to N. spumigena extract confirmed the negative effect of nodularin on the organisms. However, high numbers of dead crustaceans were also recorded in the nodularin-free fraction, which contained protease inhibitors classified to spumigins and aeruginosins. These findings indicate that cyanobacterial toxicity to aquatic organisms is a complex phenomenon and the induced effects can be attributed to diverse metabolites, not only to the known hepatotoxins.

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Mortality percentage of A. franciscana exposed to cell extract from N. spumigena CCNP1401 (A) and to diluted fractions II and III (B).
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toxins-07-04404-f003: Mortality percentage of A. franciscana exposed to cell extract from N. spumigena CCNP1401 (A) and to diluted fractions II and III (B).

Mentions: In undiluted fraction III, which contained NOD (7.6 mg∙L−1), a demethylated form of the toxin, and small amounts of two APs (Table 2), all test organisms died (Figure 3A). The mortality of crustaceans did not diminish even in the 16-times diluted solution (Figure 3B). In fraction II, six spumigins and three aeruginosins were detected. The mortality of the crustaceans incubated in the presence of these compounds was also high (90%), however, it dropped to 10% (no toxic effects) in the 2-times diluted sample (Figure 3B). Fraction I, which contained four spumigins, was less toxic (57.5% mortality). The lowest mean mortality of A. franciscana (37.5%) was in fraction IV in which trace amounts of NOD were found and two anabaenopeptins were detected as the main components (Table 2).


Nodularia spumigena peptides--accumulation and effect on aquatic invertebrates.

Mazur-Marzec H, Sutryk K, Hebel A, Hohlfeld N, Pietrasik A, Błaszczyk A - Toxins (Basel) (2015)

Mortality percentage of A. franciscana exposed to cell extract from N. spumigena CCNP1401 (A) and to diluted fractions II and III (B).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4663510&req=5

toxins-07-04404-f003: Mortality percentage of A. franciscana exposed to cell extract from N. spumigena CCNP1401 (A) and to diluted fractions II and III (B).
Mentions: In undiluted fraction III, which contained NOD (7.6 mg∙L−1), a demethylated form of the toxin, and small amounts of two APs (Table 2), all test organisms died (Figure 3A). The mortality of crustaceans did not diminish even in the 16-times diluted solution (Figure 3B). In fraction II, six spumigins and three aeruginosins were detected. The mortality of the crustaceans incubated in the presence of these compounds was also high (90%), however, it dropped to 10% (no toxic effects) in the 2-times diluted sample (Figure 3B). Fraction I, which contained four spumigins, was less toxic (57.5% mortality). The lowest mean mortality of A. franciscana (37.5%) was in fraction IV in which trace amounts of NOD were found and two anabaenopeptins were detected as the main components (Table 2).

Bottom Line: Thus far, the negative effects of Nodularia spumigena blooms on aquatic organisms have been mainly attributed to the production of the hepatotoxic nodularin (NOD).Exposure of T. platyurus and A. franciscana to N. spumigena extract confirmed the negative effect of nodularin on the organisms.These findings indicate that cyanobacterial toxicity to aquatic organisms is a complex phenomenon and the induced effects can be attributed to diverse metabolites, not only to the known hepatotoxins.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Marine Biotechnology, Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdańsk, Al. Marszałka Piłsudskiego 46, 81-378 Gdynia, Poland. biohm@ug.edu.pl.

ABSTRACT
Thus far, the negative effects of Nodularia spumigena blooms on aquatic organisms have been mainly attributed to the production of the hepatotoxic nodularin (NOD). In the current work, the accumulation of other N. spumigena metabolites in blue mussels and crustaceans, and their effect on Thamnocephalus platyurus and Artemia franciscana, were examined. The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses provided evidence that both blue mussels collected after a cyanobacterial bloom in the Baltic Sea and the crustaceans exposed under laboratory conditions to N. spumigena extract accumulated the cyclic anabaenopeptins (APs). In the crustaceans, the linear peptides, spumigins (SPUs) and aeruginosins (AERs), were additionally detected. Exposure of T. platyurus and A. franciscana to N. spumigena extract confirmed the negative effect of nodularin on the organisms. However, high numbers of dead crustaceans were also recorded in the nodularin-free fraction, which contained protease inhibitors classified to spumigins and aeruginosins. These findings indicate that cyanobacterial toxicity to aquatic organisms is a complex phenomenon and the induced effects can be attributed to diverse metabolites, not only to the known hepatotoxins.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus