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Nodularia spumigena peptides--accumulation and effect on aquatic invertebrates.

Mazur-Marzec H, Sutryk K, Hebel A, Hohlfeld N, Pietrasik A, Błaszczyk A - Toxins (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: Thus far, the negative effects of Nodularia spumigena blooms on aquatic organisms have been mainly attributed to the production of the hepatotoxic nodularin (NOD).Exposure of T. platyurus and A. franciscana to N. spumigena extract confirmed the negative effect of nodularin on the organisms.These findings indicate that cyanobacterial toxicity to aquatic organisms is a complex phenomenon and the induced effects can be attributed to diverse metabolites, not only to the known hepatotoxins.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Marine Biotechnology, Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdańsk, Al. Marszałka Piłsudskiego 46, 81-378 Gdynia, Poland. biohm@ug.edu.pl.

ABSTRACT
Thus far, the negative effects of Nodularia spumigena blooms on aquatic organisms have been mainly attributed to the production of the hepatotoxic nodularin (NOD). In the current work, the accumulation of other N. spumigena metabolites in blue mussels and crustaceans, and their effect on Thamnocephalus platyurus and Artemia franciscana, were examined. The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses provided evidence that both blue mussels collected after a cyanobacterial bloom in the Baltic Sea and the crustaceans exposed under laboratory conditions to N. spumigena extract accumulated the cyclic anabaenopeptins (APs). In the crustaceans, the linear peptides, spumigins (SPUs) and aeruginosins (AERs), were additionally detected. Exposure of T. platyurus and A. franciscana to N. spumigena extract confirmed the negative effect of nodularin on the organisms. However, high numbers of dead crustaceans were also recorded in the nodularin-free fraction, which contained protease inhibitors classified to spumigins and aeruginosins. These findings indicate that cyanobacterial toxicity to aquatic organisms is a complex phenomenon and the induced effects can be attributed to diverse metabolites, not only to the known hepatotoxins.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Mortality of A. franciscana and T. platyurus, exposed to N. spumigena spent media collected during growth of the culture (A) and to N. spumigena cell extract collected on 21 day of the culture (B). Nodularin (NOD) concentrations in the samples are marked with a diamond.
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toxins-07-04404-f002: Mortality of A. franciscana and T. platyurus, exposed to N. spumigena spent media collected during growth of the culture (A) and to N. spumigena cell extract collected on 21 day of the culture (B). Nodularin (NOD) concentrations in the samples are marked with a diamond.

Mentions: The media collected on days 4, 8, 11, 15, 18, and 21 of N. spumigena culture had no significant effect on the crustaceans. The increased mean mortality of A. franciscana was evoked by the sample from the late exponential stage of N. spumigena growth (Figure 2A). In the medium collected on day 21, 57% of organisms died. During 24-hour exposure, T. platyurus did not react to the spent medium from N. spumigena culture. The concentration of NOD in the spent medium increased from 0.007 mg∙L−1 on the first day of culture to 0.16 mg∙L−1 on day 21. In the medium collected in the late exponential phase of growth, two anabaenopeptins with m/z 842 (peak area 2.5 × 106) and m/z 828 (peak area 1.3 × 106), one spumigin with m/z 597 (peak area 1.1 × 106), and one aeruginosin with m/z 587 (peak area 1.5 × 105) were also detected.


Nodularia spumigena peptides--accumulation and effect on aquatic invertebrates.

Mazur-Marzec H, Sutryk K, Hebel A, Hohlfeld N, Pietrasik A, Błaszczyk A - Toxins (Basel) (2015)

Mortality of A. franciscana and T. platyurus, exposed to N. spumigena spent media collected during growth of the culture (A) and to N. spumigena cell extract collected on 21 day of the culture (B). Nodularin (NOD) concentrations in the samples are marked with a diamond.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4663510&req=5

toxins-07-04404-f002: Mortality of A. franciscana and T. platyurus, exposed to N. spumigena spent media collected during growth of the culture (A) and to N. spumigena cell extract collected on 21 day of the culture (B). Nodularin (NOD) concentrations in the samples are marked with a diamond.
Mentions: The media collected on days 4, 8, 11, 15, 18, and 21 of N. spumigena culture had no significant effect on the crustaceans. The increased mean mortality of A. franciscana was evoked by the sample from the late exponential stage of N. spumigena growth (Figure 2A). In the medium collected on day 21, 57% of organisms died. During 24-hour exposure, T. platyurus did not react to the spent medium from N. spumigena culture. The concentration of NOD in the spent medium increased from 0.007 mg∙L−1 on the first day of culture to 0.16 mg∙L−1 on day 21. In the medium collected in the late exponential phase of growth, two anabaenopeptins with m/z 842 (peak area 2.5 × 106) and m/z 828 (peak area 1.3 × 106), one spumigin with m/z 597 (peak area 1.1 × 106), and one aeruginosin with m/z 587 (peak area 1.5 × 105) were also detected.

Bottom Line: Thus far, the negative effects of Nodularia spumigena blooms on aquatic organisms have been mainly attributed to the production of the hepatotoxic nodularin (NOD).Exposure of T. platyurus and A. franciscana to N. spumigena extract confirmed the negative effect of nodularin on the organisms.These findings indicate that cyanobacterial toxicity to aquatic organisms is a complex phenomenon and the induced effects can be attributed to diverse metabolites, not only to the known hepatotoxins.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Marine Biotechnology, Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdańsk, Al. Marszałka Piłsudskiego 46, 81-378 Gdynia, Poland. biohm@ug.edu.pl.

ABSTRACT
Thus far, the negative effects of Nodularia spumigena blooms on aquatic organisms have been mainly attributed to the production of the hepatotoxic nodularin (NOD). In the current work, the accumulation of other N. spumigena metabolites in blue mussels and crustaceans, and their effect on Thamnocephalus platyurus and Artemia franciscana, were examined. The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses provided evidence that both blue mussels collected after a cyanobacterial bloom in the Baltic Sea and the crustaceans exposed under laboratory conditions to N. spumigena extract accumulated the cyclic anabaenopeptins (APs). In the crustaceans, the linear peptides, spumigins (SPUs) and aeruginosins (AERs), were additionally detected. Exposure of T. platyurus and A. franciscana to N. spumigena extract confirmed the negative effect of nodularin on the organisms. However, high numbers of dead crustaceans were also recorded in the nodularin-free fraction, which contained protease inhibitors classified to spumigins and aeruginosins. These findings indicate that cyanobacterial toxicity to aquatic organisms is a complex phenomenon and the induced effects can be attributed to diverse metabolites, not only to the known hepatotoxins.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus