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Nodularia spumigena peptides--accumulation and effect on aquatic invertebrates.

Mazur-Marzec H, Sutryk K, Hebel A, Hohlfeld N, Pietrasik A, Błaszczyk A - Toxins (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: Thus far, the negative effects of Nodularia spumigena blooms on aquatic organisms have been mainly attributed to the production of the hepatotoxic nodularin (NOD).Exposure of T. platyurus and A. franciscana to N. spumigena extract confirmed the negative effect of nodularin on the organisms.These findings indicate that cyanobacterial toxicity to aquatic organisms is a complex phenomenon and the induced effects can be attributed to diverse metabolites, not only to the known hepatotoxins.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Marine Biotechnology, Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdańsk, Al. Marszałka Piłsudskiego 46, 81-378 Gdynia, Poland. biohm@ug.edu.pl.

ABSTRACT
Thus far, the negative effects of Nodularia spumigena blooms on aquatic organisms have been mainly attributed to the production of the hepatotoxic nodularin (NOD). In the current work, the accumulation of other N. spumigena metabolites in blue mussels and crustaceans, and their effect on Thamnocephalus platyurus and Artemia franciscana, were examined. The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses provided evidence that both blue mussels collected after a cyanobacterial bloom in the Baltic Sea and the crustaceans exposed under laboratory conditions to N. spumigena extract accumulated the cyclic anabaenopeptins (APs). In the crustaceans, the linear peptides, spumigins (SPUs) and aeruginosins (AERs), were additionally detected. Exposure of T. platyurus and A. franciscana to N. spumigena extract confirmed the negative effect of nodularin on the organisms. However, high numbers of dead crustaceans were also recorded in the nodularin-free fraction, which contained protease inhibitors classified to spumigins and aeruginosins. These findings indicate that cyanobacterial toxicity to aquatic organisms is a complex phenomenon and the induced effects can be attributed to diverse metabolites, not only to the known hepatotoxins.

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MRM chromatograms for nodularin NOD825, anabaenopeptin AP918 and aeruginosin AER587 in Artemia franciscana (A) and Thamnocephalus platyurus (B) exposed to Nodularia spumigena extracts.
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toxins-07-04404-f001: MRM chromatograms for nodularin NOD825, anabaenopeptin AP918 and aeruginosin AER587 in Artemia franciscana (A) and Thamnocephalus platyurus (B) exposed to Nodularia spumigena extracts.

Mentions: In A. franciscana and T. platyurus exposed for 24 h to cyanobacterial extract, representatives of four classes of peptides were found (Table 1). In the mass spectra, the area of the NOD peak was the largest. The crustaceans also accumulated 6–8 variants of anabaenopeptins, one aeruginosin (m/z 587), and one spumigin (m/z 611) (Figure S5). The peak areas in the MRM chromatograms of peptides from A. franciscana extract were always larger than for corresponding peaks in the chromatograms from T. platyurus extract (Table 1, Figure 1).


Nodularia spumigena peptides--accumulation and effect on aquatic invertebrates.

Mazur-Marzec H, Sutryk K, Hebel A, Hohlfeld N, Pietrasik A, Błaszczyk A - Toxins (Basel) (2015)

MRM chromatograms for nodularin NOD825, anabaenopeptin AP918 and aeruginosin AER587 in Artemia franciscana (A) and Thamnocephalus platyurus (B) exposed to Nodularia spumigena extracts.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4663510&req=5

toxins-07-04404-f001: MRM chromatograms for nodularin NOD825, anabaenopeptin AP918 and aeruginosin AER587 in Artemia franciscana (A) and Thamnocephalus platyurus (B) exposed to Nodularia spumigena extracts.
Mentions: In A. franciscana and T. platyurus exposed for 24 h to cyanobacterial extract, representatives of four classes of peptides were found (Table 1). In the mass spectra, the area of the NOD peak was the largest. The crustaceans also accumulated 6–8 variants of anabaenopeptins, one aeruginosin (m/z 587), and one spumigin (m/z 611) (Figure S5). The peak areas in the MRM chromatograms of peptides from A. franciscana extract were always larger than for corresponding peaks in the chromatograms from T. platyurus extract (Table 1, Figure 1).

Bottom Line: Thus far, the negative effects of Nodularia spumigena blooms on aquatic organisms have been mainly attributed to the production of the hepatotoxic nodularin (NOD).Exposure of T. platyurus and A. franciscana to N. spumigena extract confirmed the negative effect of nodularin on the organisms.These findings indicate that cyanobacterial toxicity to aquatic organisms is a complex phenomenon and the induced effects can be attributed to diverse metabolites, not only to the known hepatotoxins.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Marine Biotechnology, Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdańsk, Al. Marszałka Piłsudskiego 46, 81-378 Gdynia, Poland. biohm@ug.edu.pl.

ABSTRACT
Thus far, the negative effects of Nodularia spumigena blooms on aquatic organisms have been mainly attributed to the production of the hepatotoxic nodularin (NOD). In the current work, the accumulation of other N. spumigena metabolites in blue mussels and crustaceans, and their effect on Thamnocephalus platyurus and Artemia franciscana, were examined. The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses provided evidence that both blue mussels collected after a cyanobacterial bloom in the Baltic Sea and the crustaceans exposed under laboratory conditions to N. spumigena extract accumulated the cyclic anabaenopeptins (APs). In the crustaceans, the linear peptides, spumigins (SPUs) and aeruginosins (AERs), were additionally detected. Exposure of T. platyurus and A. franciscana to N. spumigena extract confirmed the negative effect of nodularin on the organisms. However, high numbers of dead crustaceans were also recorded in the nodularin-free fraction, which contained protease inhibitors classified to spumigins and aeruginosins. These findings indicate that cyanobacterial toxicity to aquatic organisms is a complex phenomenon and the induced effects can be attributed to diverse metabolites, not only to the known hepatotoxins.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus