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Sucrose metabolism gene families and their biological functions.

Jiang SY, Chi YH, Wang JZ, Zhou JX, Cheng YS, Zhang BL, Ma A, Vanitha J, Ramachandran S - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: Although studies on general metabolism pathway were well documented, less information is available on the genome-wide identification of these genes, their expansion and evolutionary history as well as their biological functions.They were evolutionarily conserved under purifying selection among species and expression divergence played important roles for gene survival after expansion.Overexpression of 15 sorghum genes in Arabidopsis revealed their roles in biomass accumulation, flowering time control, seed germination and response to high salinity and sugar stresses.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Genome Structural Biology Group, Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117604.

ABSTRACT
Sucrose, as the main product of photosynthesis, plays crucial roles in plant development. Although studies on general metabolism pathway were well documented, less information is available on the genome-wide identification of these genes, their expansion and evolutionary history as well as their biological functions. We focused on four sucrose metabolism related gene families including sucrose synthase, sucrose phosphate synthase, sucrose phosphate phosphatase and UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. These gene families exhibited different expansion and evolutionary history as their host genomes experienced differentiated rates of the whole genome duplication, tandem and segmental duplication, or mobile element mediated gene gain and loss. They were evolutionarily conserved under purifying selection among species and expression divergence played important roles for gene survival after expansion. However, we have detected recent positive selection during intra-species divergence. Overexpression of 15 sorghum genes in Arabidopsis revealed their roles in biomass accumulation, flowering time control, seed germination and response to high salinity and sugar stresses. Our studies uncovered the molecular mechanisms of gene expansion and evolution and also provided new insight into the role of positive selection in intra-species divergence. Overexpression data revealed novel biological functions of these genes in flowering time control and seed germination under normal and stress conditions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Molecular and functional characterization of the sorghum genes encoding UDPGPs.(A) Comparative expression analysis of sorghum UDPGP genes between grain (BT × 623) and sweet (Keller) sorghum lines by RT-PCR. R, root; S, stem; YL, young leaf; ML, mature leaf; YP, young panicle; MP, mature panicle. (B) Expression regulation of sorghum UDPGP genes under various abiotic stresses and sugar treatments. 1, control; 2, 30% PEG-0.5 h; 3, 30% PEG-2 h; 4, 250 mM Nacl-2 h; 5, 250 mM Nacl-4 h; 6, 4 °C Cold-2 h; 7, 4 °C Cold-8 h; 8, 5% Glucose-2 h; 9, 5% Glucose-6 h; 10, 5% Sucrose-2 h; 11, 5% Sucrose-6 h. (C) A summary information of transgenic Arabidopsis plants by overexpressing sorghum UDPGP genes under the control of the maize promoter ubiquitin. (D) Copy number detection of T-DNA insertion in 19 T2 plants by Southern blot hybridization. These lines were generated by overexpressing the sorghum gene Sobic.006G213100 in the Arabidopsis genome. The DNA samples were digested by either PstI or SpeI and were then transferred into nylon membrane for hybridization using the HYGROMYCIN probe. The 4 independent T2 lines with single copy of T-DNA insertion in both enzymes were labelled by the star “*”. (E) Expression analysis of the ubiquitin::Sobic.006G213100 transgenic plants. In (A–E) the prefix “Sobic.” was omitted in each locus name for convenience. (F) Phenotypic observation of three independent transgenic lines under normal growth conditions. The data were collected after 8-day growth on ½ MS media. (G) Observation of flowering time in 4 independent lines. (H) Bolting rates of 4 independent lines.
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f9: Molecular and functional characterization of the sorghum genes encoding UDPGPs.(A) Comparative expression analysis of sorghum UDPGP genes between grain (BT × 623) and sweet (Keller) sorghum lines by RT-PCR. R, root; S, stem; YL, young leaf; ML, mature leaf; YP, young panicle; MP, mature panicle. (B) Expression regulation of sorghum UDPGP genes under various abiotic stresses and sugar treatments. 1, control; 2, 30% PEG-0.5 h; 3, 30% PEG-2 h; 4, 250 mM Nacl-2 h; 5, 250 mM Nacl-4 h; 6, 4 °C Cold-2 h; 7, 4 °C Cold-8 h; 8, 5% Glucose-2 h; 9, 5% Glucose-6 h; 10, 5% Sucrose-2 h; 11, 5% Sucrose-6 h. (C) A summary information of transgenic Arabidopsis plants by overexpressing sorghum UDPGP genes under the control of the maize promoter ubiquitin. (D) Copy number detection of T-DNA insertion in 19 T2 plants by Southern blot hybridization. These lines were generated by overexpressing the sorghum gene Sobic.006G213100 in the Arabidopsis genome. The DNA samples were digested by either PstI or SpeI and were then transferred into nylon membrane for hybridization using the HYGROMYCIN probe. The 4 independent T2 lines with single copy of T-DNA insertion in both enzymes were labelled by the star “*”. (E) Expression analysis of the ubiquitin::Sobic.006G213100 transgenic plants. In (A–E) the prefix “Sobic.” was omitted in each locus name for convenience. (F) Phenotypic observation of three independent transgenic lines under normal growth conditions. The data were collected after 8-day growth on ½ MS media. (G) Observation of flowering time in 4 independent lines. (H) Bolting rates of 4 independent lines.

Mentions: The sorghum genome encodes 5 members of the UDPGP family (Fig. 2A). We investigated their expression patterns by RT-PCR using total RNA samples from both BT × 623 and Keller (Fig. 9A). Except for the gene Sobic.002G291200, which was expressed in all tested six tissues including roots, stems, young and mature leaves, young and mature panicles, all the remaining 4 genes showed differential expression between BT × 623 and Keller in either tissues or transcript abundance. For example, the gene Sobic.004G013500 was mainly expressed in both mature leaves and young panicles in BT × 623 whereas its expression in Keller was mainly detected in both roots and young leaves. Another example is for the gene Sobic.010G251200, which was constitutively expressed in all 6 tissues with similar abundance in BT × 623. On contrast, in Keller, the gene was differentially expressed with obviously variable abundance in these 6 tissues. On the other hand, we also carried out the expression analysis of these genes under various stresses. We surveyed the expression regulation under drought (30% PEG), high salinity (250 mM NaCl), cold (ice-water), glucose (5%) and sucrose (5%). Under drought, high salinity, cold and glucose treatments, all analyzed four genes showed no significant difference in their expression level (Fig. 9B). However, under sucrose treatment, both genes Sobic.004G013500 and Sobic.007G075500 were down-regulated in their transcript abundance (Fig. 9B).


Sucrose metabolism gene families and their biological functions.

Jiang SY, Chi YH, Wang JZ, Zhou JX, Cheng YS, Zhang BL, Ma A, Vanitha J, Ramachandran S - Sci Rep (2015)

Molecular and functional characterization of the sorghum genes encoding UDPGPs.(A) Comparative expression analysis of sorghum UDPGP genes between grain (BT × 623) and sweet (Keller) sorghum lines by RT-PCR. R, root; S, stem; YL, young leaf; ML, mature leaf; YP, young panicle; MP, mature panicle. (B) Expression regulation of sorghum UDPGP genes under various abiotic stresses and sugar treatments. 1, control; 2, 30% PEG-0.5 h; 3, 30% PEG-2 h; 4, 250 mM Nacl-2 h; 5, 250 mM Nacl-4 h; 6, 4 °C Cold-2 h; 7, 4 °C Cold-8 h; 8, 5% Glucose-2 h; 9, 5% Glucose-6 h; 10, 5% Sucrose-2 h; 11, 5% Sucrose-6 h. (C) A summary information of transgenic Arabidopsis plants by overexpressing sorghum UDPGP genes under the control of the maize promoter ubiquitin. (D) Copy number detection of T-DNA insertion in 19 T2 plants by Southern blot hybridization. These lines were generated by overexpressing the sorghum gene Sobic.006G213100 in the Arabidopsis genome. The DNA samples were digested by either PstI or SpeI and were then transferred into nylon membrane for hybridization using the HYGROMYCIN probe. The 4 independent T2 lines with single copy of T-DNA insertion in both enzymes were labelled by the star “*”. (E) Expression analysis of the ubiquitin::Sobic.006G213100 transgenic plants. In (A–E) the prefix “Sobic.” was omitted in each locus name for convenience. (F) Phenotypic observation of three independent transgenic lines under normal growth conditions. The data were collected after 8-day growth on ½ MS media. (G) Observation of flowering time in 4 independent lines. (H) Bolting rates of 4 independent lines.
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f9: Molecular and functional characterization of the sorghum genes encoding UDPGPs.(A) Comparative expression analysis of sorghum UDPGP genes between grain (BT × 623) and sweet (Keller) sorghum lines by RT-PCR. R, root; S, stem; YL, young leaf; ML, mature leaf; YP, young panicle; MP, mature panicle. (B) Expression regulation of sorghum UDPGP genes under various abiotic stresses and sugar treatments. 1, control; 2, 30% PEG-0.5 h; 3, 30% PEG-2 h; 4, 250 mM Nacl-2 h; 5, 250 mM Nacl-4 h; 6, 4 °C Cold-2 h; 7, 4 °C Cold-8 h; 8, 5% Glucose-2 h; 9, 5% Glucose-6 h; 10, 5% Sucrose-2 h; 11, 5% Sucrose-6 h. (C) A summary information of transgenic Arabidopsis plants by overexpressing sorghum UDPGP genes under the control of the maize promoter ubiquitin. (D) Copy number detection of T-DNA insertion in 19 T2 plants by Southern blot hybridization. These lines were generated by overexpressing the sorghum gene Sobic.006G213100 in the Arabidopsis genome. The DNA samples were digested by either PstI or SpeI and were then transferred into nylon membrane for hybridization using the HYGROMYCIN probe. The 4 independent T2 lines with single copy of T-DNA insertion in both enzymes were labelled by the star “*”. (E) Expression analysis of the ubiquitin::Sobic.006G213100 transgenic plants. In (A–E) the prefix “Sobic.” was omitted in each locus name for convenience. (F) Phenotypic observation of three independent transgenic lines under normal growth conditions. The data were collected after 8-day growth on ½ MS media. (G) Observation of flowering time in 4 independent lines. (H) Bolting rates of 4 independent lines.
Mentions: The sorghum genome encodes 5 members of the UDPGP family (Fig. 2A). We investigated their expression patterns by RT-PCR using total RNA samples from both BT × 623 and Keller (Fig. 9A). Except for the gene Sobic.002G291200, which was expressed in all tested six tissues including roots, stems, young and mature leaves, young and mature panicles, all the remaining 4 genes showed differential expression between BT × 623 and Keller in either tissues or transcript abundance. For example, the gene Sobic.004G013500 was mainly expressed in both mature leaves and young panicles in BT × 623 whereas its expression in Keller was mainly detected in both roots and young leaves. Another example is for the gene Sobic.010G251200, which was constitutively expressed in all 6 tissues with similar abundance in BT × 623. On contrast, in Keller, the gene was differentially expressed with obviously variable abundance in these 6 tissues. On the other hand, we also carried out the expression analysis of these genes under various stresses. We surveyed the expression regulation under drought (30% PEG), high salinity (250 mM NaCl), cold (ice-water), glucose (5%) and sucrose (5%). Under drought, high salinity, cold and glucose treatments, all analyzed four genes showed no significant difference in their expression level (Fig. 9B). However, under sucrose treatment, both genes Sobic.004G013500 and Sobic.007G075500 were down-regulated in their transcript abundance (Fig. 9B).

Bottom Line: Although studies on general metabolism pathway were well documented, less information is available on the genome-wide identification of these genes, their expansion and evolutionary history as well as their biological functions.They were evolutionarily conserved under purifying selection among species and expression divergence played important roles for gene survival after expansion.Overexpression of 15 sorghum genes in Arabidopsis revealed their roles in biomass accumulation, flowering time control, seed germination and response to high salinity and sugar stresses.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Genome Structural Biology Group, Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117604.

ABSTRACT
Sucrose, as the main product of photosynthesis, plays crucial roles in plant development. Although studies on general metabolism pathway were well documented, less information is available on the genome-wide identification of these genes, their expansion and evolutionary history as well as their biological functions. We focused on four sucrose metabolism related gene families including sucrose synthase, sucrose phosphate synthase, sucrose phosphate phosphatase and UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. These gene families exhibited different expansion and evolutionary history as their host genomes experienced differentiated rates of the whole genome duplication, tandem and segmental duplication, or mobile element mediated gene gain and loss. They were evolutionarily conserved under purifying selection among species and expression divergence played important roles for gene survival after expansion. However, we have detected recent positive selection during intra-species divergence. Overexpression of 15 sorghum genes in Arabidopsis revealed their roles in biomass accumulation, flowering time control, seed germination and response to high salinity and sugar stresses. Our studies uncovered the molecular mechanisms of gene expansion and evolution and also provided new insight into the role of positive selection in intra-species divergence. Overexpression data revealed novel biological functions of these genes in flowering time control and seed germination under normal and stress conditions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus