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Mitochondrion-Permeable Antioxidants to Treat ROS-Burst-Mediated Acute Diseases.

Zhang ZW, Xu XC, Liu T, Yuan S - Oxid Med Cell Longev (2015)

Bottom Line: However, long-term use of high-dose VC causes many side effects.Therefore, astaxanthin injection is suggested hypothetically.The drawbacks of the antioxidants are also reviewed, which limit the use of antioxidants as coadjuvants in the treatment of ROS-associated disorders.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Resources Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China.

ABSTRACT
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a crucial role in the inflammatory response and cytokine outbreak, such as during virus infections, diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, antioxidant is an important medicine to ROS-related diseases. For example, ascorbic acid (vitamin C, VC) was suggested as the candidate antioxidant to treat multiple diseases. However, long-term use of high-dose VC causes many side effects. In this review, we compare and analyze all kinds of mitochondrion-permeable antioxidants, including edaravone, idebenone, α-Lipoic acid, carotenoids, vitamin E, and coenzyme Q10, and mitochondria-targeted antioxidants MitoQ and SkQ and propose astaxanthin (a special carotenoid) to be the best antioxidant for ROS-burst-mediated acute diseases, like avian influenza infection and ischemia-reperfusion. Nevertheless, astaxanthins are so unstable that most of them are inactivated after oral administration. Therefore, astaxanthin injection is suggested hypothetically. The drawbacks of the antioxidants are also reviewed, which limit the use of antioxidants as coadjuvants in the treatment of ROS-associated disorders.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Chemical structures of representative mitochondrion-permeable antioxidants (edaravone, idebenone, α-Lipoic acid, coenzyme Q10, MitoQ, vitamin E, β-carotene, and astaxanthin).
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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fig1: Chemical structures of representative mitochondrion-permeable antioxidants (edaravone, idebenone, α-Lipoic acid, coenzyme Q10, MitoQ, vitamin E, β-carotene, and astaxanthin).

Mentions: As discussed above, ROS-burst-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and mitochondrial-derived apoptosis play a crucial role in the inflammatory response during avian influenza infection or ischemia-reperfusion. Thus for these ROS-burst-mediated acute diseases, mitochondrion-permeable antioxidants should be much more effective than water-soluble antioxidants (like VC). Edaravone, idebenone, α-Lipoic acid, carotenoids (especially astaxanthin), vitamin E, coenzyme Q10, and mitochondria-targeted antioxidants MitoQ and SkQ are summarized as follows (Table 1 and Figure 1). Interestingly, most of them contain a six-membered carbon-ring with a long alkyl side chain and multiple hydroxyl groups and aldehyde groups (Figure 1). All of them are liposoluble. Therefore, they could traverse across the cell membrane and the mitochondrial membrane and accumulate in mitochondria. On the contrary, most water-soluble antioxidants are distributed in the cytosol (Figure 1).


Mitochondrion-Permeable Antioxidants to Treat ROS-Burst-Mediated Acute Diseases.

Zhang ZW, Xu XC, Liu T, Yuan S - Oxid Med Cell Longev (2015)

Chemical structures of representative mitochondrion-permeable antioxidants (edaravone, idebenone, α-Lipoic acid, coenzyme Q10, MitoQ, vitamin E, β-carotene, and astaxanthin).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4663357&req=5

fig1: Chemical structures of representative mitochondrion-permeable antioxidants (edaravone, idebenone, α-Lipoic acid, coenzyme Q10, MitoQ, vitamin E, β-carotene, and astaxanthin).
Mentions: As discussed above, ROS-burst-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and mitochondrial-derived apoptosis play a crucial role in the inflammatory response during avian influenza infection or ischemia-reperfusion. Thus for these ROS-burst-mediated acute diseases, mitochondrion-permeable antioxidants should be much more effective than water-soluble antioxidants (like VC). Edaravone, idebenone, α-Lipoic acid, carotenoids (especially astaxanthin), vitamin E, coenzyme Q10, and mitochondria-targeted antioxidants MitoQ and SkQ are summarized as follows (Table 1 and Figure 1). Interestingly, most of them contain a six-membered carbon-ring with a long alkyl side chain and multiple hydroxyl groups and aldehyde groups (Figure 1). All of them are liposoluble. Therefore, they could traverse across the cell membrane and the mitochondrial membrane and accumulate in mitochondria. On the contrary, most water-soluble antioxidants are distributed in the cytosol (Figure 1).

Bottom Line: However, long-term use of high-dose VC causes many side effects.Therefore, astaxanthin injection is suggested hypothetically.The drawbacks of the antioxidants are also reviewed, which limit the use of antioxidants as coadjuvants in the treatment of ROS-associated disorders.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Resources Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China.

ABSTRACT
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a crucial role in the inflammatory response and cytokine outbreak, such as during virus infections, diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, antioxidant is an important medicine to ROS-related diseases. For example, ascorbic acid (vitamin C, VC) was suggested as the candidate antioxidant to treat multiple diseases. However, long-term use of high-dose VC causes many side effects. In this review, we compare and analyze all kinds of mitochondrion-permeable antioxidants, including edaravone, idebenone, α-Lipoic acid, carotenoids, vitamin E, and coenzyme Q10, and mitochondria-targeted antioxidants MitoQ and SkQ and propose astaxanthin (a special carotenoid) to be the best antioxidant for ROS-burst-mediated acute diseases, like avian influenza infection and ischemia-reperfusion. Nevertheless, astaxanthins are so unstable that most of them are inactivated after oral administration. Therefore, astaxanthin injection is suggested hypothetically. The drawbacks of the antioxidants are also reviewed, which limit the use of antioxidants as coadjuvants in the treatment of ROS-associated disorders.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus