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Synaptic Plasticity and Neurological Disorders in Neurotropic Viral Infections.

Atluri VS, Hidalgo M, Samikkannu T, Kurapati KR, Nair M - Neural Plast. (2015)

Bottom Line: While rabies and poliovirus are considered as strictly neurotropic, other neurotropic viruses involve nervous tissue only secondarily.Since the AIDS pandemic, the interest in neurotropic viral infections has become essential for all clinical neurologists.In this review, we have discussed the neurotropic viruses, which play a major role in altered synaptic plasticity and neurological disorders.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Immunology, Institute of NeuroImmune Pharmacology, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199, USA.

ABSTRACT
Based on the type of cells or tissues they tend to harbor or attack, many of the viruses are characterized. But, in case of neurotropic viruses, it is not possible to classify them based on their tropism because many of them are not primarily neurotropic. While rabies and poliovirus are considered as strictly neurotropic, other neurotropic viruses involve nervous tissue only secondarily. Since the AIDS pandemic, the interest in neurotropic viral infections has become essential for all clinical neurologists. Although these neurotropic viruses are able to be harbored in or infect the nervous system, not all the neurotropic viruses have been reported to cause disrupted synaptic plasticity and impaired cognitive functions. In this review, we have discussed the neurotropic viruses, which play a major role in altered synaptic plasticity and neurological disorders.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(a) Synapse prior to long term potentiation: NMDA and AMPA are two types of receptors at the postsynaptic neuron, for the neurotransmitter glutamate. NMDA receptors open in response to glutamate prior to potentiation. However, they are blocked by Mg2+. (b) Establishing LTP: NMDA receptors release Mg2+ after depolarization of the postsynaptic membrane in response to the activity. Na+ and Ca+ travel inside and induce the migration of internal AMPA receptors to the membrane. (c) Synapse exhibiting LTP: NMDA receptors are unblocked when depolarization is triggered by AMPA receptors. These two receptors are now responsible for action potentials.
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fig1: (a) Synapse prior to long term potentiation: NMDA and AMPA are two types of receptors at the postsynaptic neuron, for the neurotransmitter glutamate. NMDA receptors open in response to glutamate prior to potentiation. However, they are blocked by Mg2+. (b) Establishing LTP: NMDA receptors release Mg2+ after depolarization of the postsynaptic membrane in response to the activity. Na+ and Ca+ travel inside and induce the migration of internal AMPA receptors to the membrane. (c) Synapse exhibiting LTP: NMDA receptors are unblocked when depolarization is triggered by AMPA receptors. These two receptors are now responsible for action potentials.

Mentions: In the hippocampus, a repetitive stimulation of excitatory synapses is able to result in a potentiation of synaptic strength, lasting for hours to days, and it is referred to as long-term potentiation (LTP) or long-term synaptic plasticity. Different forms of long-term depression (LTD) are present in the majority of synapses that show LTP. LTD is an activity-dependent decline in the efficiency of neuronal synapses, resulting in a long patterned stimulus. Therefore, an important idea is that different patterns of activity are able to modify synaptic strength in a bidirectional way at excitatory synapses. Homeostatic plasticity has been recently recognized as an additional form of synaptic plasticity [10] as well as metaplasticity [11]. Schematic representation of the synapse (Figure 1(a)), establishing LTP (Figure 1(b)), and synapse exhibiting LTP (Figure 1(c)) was shown in Figure 1. Figure 2 is showing the different mechanisms of long-term depression.


Synaptic Plasticity and Neurological Disorders in Neurotropic Viral Infections.

Atluri VS, Hidalgo M, Samikkannu T, Kurapati KR, Nair M - Neural Plast. (2015)

(a) Synapse prior to long term potentiation: NMDA and AMPA are two types of receptors at the postsynaptic neuron, for the neurotransmitter glutamate. NMDA receptors open in response to glutamate prior to potentiation. However, they are blocked by Mg2+. (b) Establishing LTP: NMDA receptors release Mg2+ after depolarization of the postsynaptic membrane in response to the activity. Na+ and Ca+ travel inside and induce the migration of internal AMPA receptors to the membrane. (c) Synapse exhibiting LTP: NMDA receptors are unblocked when depolarization is triggered by AMPA receptors. These two receptors are now responsible for action potentials.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4663354&req=5

fig1: (a) Synapse prior to long term potentiation: NMDA and AMPA are two types of receptors at the postsynaptic neuron, for the neurotransmitter glutamate. NMDA receptors open in response to glutamate prior to potentiation. However, they are blocked by Mg2+. (b) Establishing LTP: NMDA receptors release Mg2+ after depolarization of the postsynaptic membrane in response to the activity. Na+ and Ca+ travel inside and induce the migration of internal AMPA receptors to the membrane. (c) Synapse exhibiting LTP: NMDA receptors are unblocked when depolarization is triggered by AMPA receptors. These two receptors are now responsible for action potentials.
Mentions: In the hippocampus, a repetitive stimulation of excitatory synapses is able to result in a potentiation of synaptic strength, lasting for hours to days, and it is referred to as long-term potentiation (LTP) or long-term synaptic plasticity. Different forms of long-term depression (LTD) are present in the majority of synapses that show LTP. LTD is an activity-dependent decline in the efficiency of neuronal synapses, resulting in a long patterned stimulus. Therefore, an important idea is that different patterns of activity are able to modify synaptic strength in a bidirectional way at excitatory synapses. Homeostatic plasticity has been recently recognized as an additional form of synaptic plasticity [10] as well as metaplasticity [11]. Schematic representation of the synapse (Figure 1(a)), establishing LTP (Figure 1(b)), and synapse exhibiting LTP (Figure 1(c)) was shown in Figure 1. Figure 2 is showing the different mechanisms of long-term depression.

Bottom Line: While rabies and poliovirus are considered as strictly neurotropic, other neurotropic viruses involve nervous tissue only secondarily.Since the AIDS pandemic, the interest in neurotropic viral infections has become essential for all clinical neurologists.In this review, we have discussed the neurotropic viruses, which play a major role in altered synaptic plasticity and neurological disorders.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Immunology, Institute of NeuroImmune Pharmacology, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199, USA.

ABSTRACT
Based on the type of cells or tissues they tend to harbor or attack, many of the viruses are characterized. But, in case of neurotropic viruses, it is not possible to classify them based on their tropism because many of them are not primarily neurotropic. While rabies and poliovirus are considered as strictly neurotropic, other neurotropic viruses involve nervous tissue only secondarily. Since the AIDS pandemic, the interest in neurotropic viral infections has become essential for all clinical neurologists. Although these neurotropic viruses are able to be harbored in or infect the nervous system, not all the neurotropic viruses have been reported to cause disrupted synaptic plasticity and impaired cognitive functions. In this review, we have discussed the neurotropic viruses, which play a major role in altered synaptic plasticity and neurological disorders.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus