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Polyphenols as Modulator of Oxidative Stress in Cancer Disease: New Therapeutic Strategies.

Mileo AM, Miccadei S - Oxid Med Cell Longev (2015)

Bottom Line: Since these antitumour treatments have important side effects, the challenge is to develop new anticancer therapeutic strategies more effective and less toxic for patients.Several ROS inducers-polyphenols can impact CSCs metabolisms and self-renewal related pathways.Natural polyphenol roles, mainly in chemoprevention and cancer therapies, are described and discussed in the light of the current literature data.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, 00144 Rome, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Cancer onset and progression have been linked to oxidative stress by increasing DNA mutations or inducing DNA damage, genome instability, and cell proliferation and therefore antioxidant agents could interfere with carcinogenesis. It is well known that conventional radio-/chemotherapies influence tumour outcome through ROS modulation. Since these antitumour treatments have important side effects, the challenge is to develop new anticancer therapeutic strategies more effective and less toxic for patients. To this purpose, many natural polyphenols have emerged as very promising anticancer bioactive compounds. Beside their well-known antioxidant activities, several polyphenols target epigenetic processes involved in cancer development through the modulation of oxidative stress. An alternative strategy to the cytotoxic treatment is an approach leading to cytostasis through the induction of therapy-induced senescence. Many anticancer polyphenols cause cellular growth arrest through the induction of a ROS-dependent premature senescence and are considered promising antitumour therapeutic tools. Furthermore, one of the most innovative and interesting topics is the evaluation of efficacy of prooxidant therapies on cancer stem cells (CSCs). Several ROS inducers-polyphenols can impact CSCs metabolisms and self-renewal related pathways. Natural polyphenol roles, mainly in chemoprevention and cancer therapies, are described and discussed in the light of the current literature data.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Dual prooxidant role of ROS level in cancer cells. Prooxidant mechanisms associated with different cellular ROS levels: high levels could induce DNA damage and cell death whereas low levels could induce epigenetic alterations and senescence-like growth arrest. In the figure the classical role of ROS scavengers as antioxidants is also reported.
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fig1: Dual prooxidant role of ROS level in cancer cells. Prooxidant mechanisms associated with different cellular ROS levels: high levels could induce DNA damage and cell death whereas low levels could induce epigenetic alterations and senescence-like growth arrest. In the figure the classical role of ROS scavengers as antioxidants is also reported.

Mentions: Intriguingly, it is believed that, on the one hand, ROS contribute to the carcinogenesis, but, on the other hand, excessive amounts of ROS may act as cellular toxicants which lead to cancer cell growth arrest, apoptosis, or necrosis [41] (Figure 1). It is speculated that the malignant cells which are under increased level of oxidative stress would be more vulnerable to further ROS attack [42].


Polyphenols as Modulator of Oxidative Stress in Cancer Disease: New Therapeutic Strategies.

Mileo AM, Miccadei S - Oxid Med Cell Longev (2015)

Dual prooxidant role of ROS level in cancer cells. Prooxidant mechanisms associated with different cellular ROS levels: high levels could induce DNA damage and cell death whereas low levels could induce epigenetic alterations and senescence-like growth arrest. In the figure the classical role of ROS scavengers as antioxidants is also reported.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4663347&req=5

fig1: Dual prooxidant role of ROS level in cancer cells. Prooxidant mechanisms associated with different cellular ROS levels: high levels could induce DNA damage and cell death whereas low levels could induce epigenetic alterations and senescence-like growth arrest. In the figure the classical role of ROS scavengers as antioxidants is also reported.
Mentions: Intriguingly, it is believed that, on the one hand, ROS contribute to the carcinogenesis, but, on the other hand, excessive amounts of ROS may act as cellular toxicants which lead to cancer cell growth arrest, apoptosis, or necrosis [41] (Figure 1). It is speculated that the malignant cells which are under increased level of oxidative stress would be more vulnerable to further ROS attack [42].

Bottom Line: Since these antitumour treatments have important side effects, the challenge is to develop new anticancer therapeutic strategies more effective and less toxic for patients.Several ROS inducers-polyphenols can impact CSCs metabolisms and self-renewal related pathways.Natural polyphenol roles, mainly in chemoprevention and cancer therapies, are described and discussed in the light of the current literature data.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, 00144 Rome, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Cancer onset and progression have been linked to oxidative stress by increasing DNA mutations or inducing DNA damage, genome instability, and cell proliferation and therefore antioxidant agents could interfere with carcinogenesis. It is well known that conventional radio-/chemotherapies influence tumour outcome through ROS modulation. Since these antitumour treatments have important side effects, the challenge is to develop new anticancer therapeutic strategies more effective and less toxic for patients. To this purpose, many natural polyphenols have emerged as very promising anticancer bioactive compounds. Beside their well-known antioxidant activities, several polyphenols target epigenetic processes involved in cancer development through the modulation of oxidative stress. An alternative strategy to the cytotoxic treatment is an approach leading to cytostasis through the induction of therapy-induced senescence. Many anticancer polyphenols cause cellular growth arrest through the induction of a ROS-dependent premature senescence and are considered promising antitumour therapeutic tools. Furthermore, one of the most innovative and interesting topics is the evaluation of efficacy of prooxidant therapies on cancer stem cells (CSCs). Several ROS inducers-polyphenols can impact CSCs metabolisms and self-renewal related pathways. Natural polyphenol roles, mainly in chemoprevention and cancer therapies, are described and discussed in the light of the current literature data.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus