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Extracellular Vesicles: Evolving Factors in Stem Cell Biology.

Nawaz M, Fatima F, Vallabhaneni KC, Penfornis P, Valadi H, Ekström K, Kholia S, Whitt JD, Fernandes JD, Pochampally R, Squire JA, Camussi G - Stem Cells Int (2015)

Bottom Line: Hitherto, significant efforts have been made to understand the level of underlying paracrine activities influenced by stem cell secreted trophic factors, as little is known about these interactions.Recent findings, however, elucidate this role by reporting the effects of stem cell derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) that mimic the phenotypes of the cells from which they originate.Collectively, these functions ensure an enormous potential for future therapies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pathology and Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Avenue Bandeirantes, 3900 Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil ; Department of Rheumatology and Inflammation Research, University of Gothenburg, Box 480, 405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden.

ABSTRACT
Stem cells are proposed to continuously secrete trophic factors that potentially serve as mediators of autocrine and paracrine activities, associated with reprogramming of the tumor microenvironment, tissue regeneration, and repair. Hitherto, significant efforts have been made to understand the level of underlying paracrine activities influenced by stem cell secreted trophic factors, as little is known about these interactions. Recent findings, however, elucidate this role by reporting the effects of stem cell derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) that mimic the phenotypes of the cells from which they originate. Exchange of genetic information utilizing persistent bidirectional communication mediated by stem cell-EVs could regulate stemness, self-renewal, and differentiation in stem cells and their subpopulations. This review therefore discusses stem cell-EVs as evolving communication factors in stem cell biology, focusing on how they regulate cell fates by inducing persistent and prolonged genetic reprogramming of resident cells in a paracrine fashion. In addition, we address the role of stem cell-secreted vesicles in shaping the tumor microenvironment and immunomodulation and in their ability to stimulate endogenous repair processes during tissue damage. Collectively, these functions ensure an enormous potential for future therapies.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic representation of the regenerative effects of stem cell-derived EVs. MSCs use EVs to ameliorate tissue damage through translocating growth factors, anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic, and proangiogenic molecules, to sites of injury where they induce and regulate regenerative phenotypes.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4663346&req=5

fig3: Schematic representation of the regenerative effects of stem cell-derived EVs. MSCs use EVs to ameliorate tissue damage through translocating growth factors, anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic, and proangiogenic molecules, to sites of injury where they induce and regulate regenerative phenotypes.

Mentions: In summary, stem cells induce regenerative programs in injured tissues of different organs through EV-mediated transfer of anti-inflammatory miRNAs and growth factors. These, in turn, ameliorate the damage (Figure 3) by activating different signaling pathways, which have an antiapoptotic and angiogenic effect therefore significantly restoring the bioenergetics, improving blood flow recovery, and inducing stemlike phenotypes in injured organs.


Extracellular Vesicles: Evolving Factors in Stem Cell Biology.

Nawaz M, Fatima F, Vallabhaneni KC, Penfornis P, Valadi H, Ekström K, Kholia S, Whitt JD, Fernandes JD, Pochampally R, Squire JA, Camussi G - Stem Cells Int (2015)

Schematic representation of the regenerative effects of stem cell-derived EVs. MSCs use EVs to ameliorate tissue damage through translocating growth factors, anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic, and proangiogenic molecules, to sites of injury where they induce and regulate regenerative phenotypes.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4663346&req=5

fig3: Schematic representation of the regenerative effects of stem cell-derived EVs. MSCs use EVs to ameliorate tissue damage through translocating growth factors, anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic, and proangiogenic molecules, to sites of injury where they induce and regulate regenerative phenotypes.
Mentions: In summary, stem cells induce regenerative programs in injured tissues of different organs through EV-mediated transfer of anti-inflammatory miRNAs and growth factors. These, in turn, ameliorate the damage (Figure 3) by activating different signaling pathways, which have an antiapoptotic and angiogenic effect therefore significantly restoring the bioenergetics, improving blood flow recovery, and inducing stemlike phenotypes in injured organs.

Bottom Line: Hitherto, significant efforts have been made to understand the level of underlying paracrine activities influenced by stem cell secreted trophic factors, as little is known about these interactions.Recent findings, however, elucidate this role by reporting the effects of stem cell derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) that mimic the phenotypes of the cells from which they originate.Collectively, these functions ensure an enormous potential for future therapies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pathology and Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Avenue Bandeirantes, 3900 Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil ; Department of Rheumatology and Inflammation Research, University of Gothenburg, Box 480, 405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden.

ABSTRACT
Stem cells are proposed to continuously secrete trophic factors that potentially serve as mediators of autocrine and paracrine activities, associated with reprogramming of the tumor microenvironment, tissue regeneration, and repair. Hitherto, significant efforts have been made to understand the level of underlying paracrine activities influenced by stem cell secreted trophic factors, as little is known about these interactions. Recent findings, however, elucidate this role by reporting the effects of stem cell derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) that mimic the phenotypes of the cells from which they originate. Exchange of genetic information utilizing persistent bidirectional communication mediated by stem cell-EVs could regulate stemness, self-renewal, and differentiation in stem cells and their subpopulations. This review therefore discusses stem cell-EVs as evolving communication factors in stem cell biology, focusing on how they regulate cell fates by inducing persistent and prolonged genetic reprogramming of resident cells in a paracrine fashion. In addition, we address the role of stem cell-secreted vesicles in shaping the tumor microenvironment and immunomodulation and in their ability to stimulate endogenous repair processes during tissue damage. Collectively, these functions ensure an enormous potential for future therapies.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus