Limits...
Extracellular Vesicles: Evolving Factors in Stem Cell Biology.

Nawaz M, Fatima F, Vallabhaneni KC, Penfornis P, Valadi H, Ekström K, Kholia S, Whitt JD, Fernandes JD, Pochampally R, Squire JA, Camussi G - Stem Cells Int (2015)

Bottom Line: Hitherto, significant efforts have been made to understand the level of underlying paracrine activities influenced by stem cell secreted trophic factors, as little is known about these interactions.Recent findings, however, elucidate this role by reporting the effects of stem cell derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) that mimic the phenotypes of the cells from which they originate.Collectively, these functions ensure an enormous potential for future therapies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pathology and Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Avenue Bandeirantes, 3900 Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil ; Department of Rheumatology and Inflammation Research, University of Gothenburg, Box 480, 405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden.

ABSTRACT
Stem cells are proposed to continuously secrete trophic factors that potentially serve as mediators of autocrine and paracrine activities, associated with reprogramming of the tumor microenvironment, tissue regeneration, and repair. Hitherto, significant efforts have been made to understand the level of underlying paracrine activities influenced by stem cell secreted trophic factors, as little is known about these interactions. Recent findings, however, elucidate this role by reporting the effects of stem cell derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) that mimic the phenotypes of the cells from which they originate. Exchange of genetic information utilizing persistent bidirectional communication mediated by stem cell-EVs could regulate stemness, self-renewal, and differentiation in stem cells and their subpopulations. This review therefore discusses stem cell-EVs as evolving communication factors in stem cell biology, focusing on how they regulate cell fates by inducing persistent and prolonged genetic reprogramming of resident cells in a paracrine fashion. In addition, we address the role of stem cell-secreted vesicles in shaping the tumor microenvironment and immunomodulation and in their ability to stimulate endogenous repair processes during tissue damage. Collectively, these functions ensure an enormous potential for future therapies.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Contribution of stem cell-derived EVs in the construction of the tumor microenvironment. Stem cell-derived EVs influence the presence of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), inflammatory immune cells, metalloproteinases, angiogenic growth factors, and regulatory RNAs, which shape the tumor microenvironment. Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, endothelial cell growth, cell migration, and angiogenesis generate a permissive tumor niche.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4663346&req=5

fig2: Contribution of stem cell-derived EVs in the construction of the tumor microenvironment. Stem cell-derived EVs influence the presence of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), inflammatory immune cells, metalloproteinases, angiogenic growth factors, and regulatory RNAs, which shape the tumor microenvironment. Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, endothelial cell growth, cell migration, and angiogenesis generate a permissive tumor niche.

Mentions: In summary, EVs secreted from cancer cells educate MSCs to undergo neoplastic transformation into tumor-associated fibroblasts in local stroma. In addition, EV-mediated dynamic interactions amongst stromal elements and the concomitant recruitment of oncogenic CAFs, growth factors, immune molecules, and several other related mechanisms shape a tumor niche capable of development and growth (Figure 2).


Extracellular Vesicles: Evolving Factors in Stem Cell Biology.

Nawaz M, Fatima F, Vallabhaneni KC, Penfornis P, Valadi H, Ekström K, Kholia S, Whitt JD, Fernandes JD, Pochampally R, Squire JA, Camussi G - Stem Cells Int (2015)

Contribution of stem cell-derived EVs in the construction of the tumor microenvironment. Stem cell-derived EVs influence the presence of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), inflammatory immune cells, metalloproteinases, angiogenic growth factors, and regulatory RNAs, which shape the tumor microenvironment. Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, endothelial cell growth, cell migration, and angiogenesis generate a permissive tumor niche.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4663346&req=5

fig2: Contribution of stem cell-derived EVs in the construction of the tumor microenvironment. Stem cell-derived EVs influence the presence of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), inflammatory immune cells, metalloproteinases, angiogenic growth factors, and regulatory RNAs, which shape the tumor microenvironment. Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, endothelial cell growth, cell migration, and angiogenesis generate a permissive tumor niche.
Mentions: In summary, EVs secreted from cancer cells educate MSCs to undergo neoplastic transformation into tumor-associated fibroblasts in local stroma. In addition, EV-mediated dynamic interactions amongst stromal elements and the concomitant recruitment of oncogenic CAFs, growth factors, immune molecules, and several other related mechanisms shape a tumor niche capable of development and growth (Figure 2).

Bottom Line: Hitherto, significant efforts have been made to understand the level of underlying paracrine activities influenced by stem cell secreted trophic factors, as little is known about these interactions.Recent findings, however, elucidate this role by reporting the effects of stem cell derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) that mimic the phenotypes of the cells from which they originate.Collectively, these functions ensure an enormous potential for future therapies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pathology and Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Avenue Bandeirantes, 3900 Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil ; Department of Rheumatology and Inflammation Research, University of Gothenburg, Box 480, 405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden.

ABSTRACT
Stem cells are proposed to continuously secrete trophic factors that potentially serve as mediators of autocrine and paracrine activities, associated with reprogramming of the tumor microenvironment, tissue regeneration, and repair. Hitherto, significant efforts have been made to understand the level of underlying paracrine activities influenced by stem cell secreted trophic factors, as little is known about these interactions. Recent findings, however, elucidate this role by reporting the effects of stem cell derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) that mimic the phenotypes of the cells from which they originate. Exchange of genetic information utilizing persistent bidirectional communication mediated by stem cell-EVs could regulate stemness, self-renewal, and differentiation in stem cells and their subpopulations. This review therefore discusses stem cell-EVs as evolving communication factors in stem cell biology, focusing on how they regulate cell fates by inducing persistent and prolonged genetic reprogramming of resident cells in a paracrine fashion. In addition, we address the role of stem cell-secreted vesicles in shaping the tumor microenvironment and immunomodulation and in their ability to stimulate endogenous repair processes during tissue damage. Collectively, these functions ensure an enormous potential for future therapies.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus