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Extracellular Vesicles: Evolving Factors in Stem Cell Biology.

Nawaz M, Fatima F, Vallabhaneni KC, Penfornis P, Valadi H, Ekström K, Kholia S, Whitt JD, Fernandes JD, Pochampally R, Squire JA, Camussi G - Stem Cells Int (2015)

Bottom Line: Hitherto, significant efforts have been made to understand the level of underlying paracrine activities influenced by stem cell secreted trophic factors, as little is known about these interactions.Recent findings, however, elucidate this role by reporting the effects of stem cell derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) that mimic the phenotypes of the cells from which they originate.Collectively, these functions ensure an enormous potential for future therapies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pathology and Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Avenue Bandeirantes, 3900 Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil ; Department of Rheumatology and Inflammation Research, University of Gothenburg, Box 480, 405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden.

ABSTRACT
Stem cells are proposed to continuously secrete trophic factors that potentially serve as mediators of autocrine and paracrine activities, associated with reprogramming of the tumor microenvironment, tissue regeneration, and repair. Hitherto, significant efforts have been made to understand the level of underlying paracrine activities influenced by stem cell secreted trophic factors, as little is known about these interactions. Recent findings, however, elucidate this role by reporting the effects of stem cell derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) that mimic the phenotypes of the cells from which they originate. Exchange of genetic information utilizing persistent bidirectional communication mediated by stem cell-EVs could regulate stemness, self-renewal, and differentiation in stem cells and their subpopulations. This review therefore discusses stem cell-EVs as evolving communication factors in stem cell biology, focusing on how they regulate cell fates by inducing persistent and prolonged genetic reprogramming of resident cells in a paracrine fashion. In addition, we address the role of stem cell-secreted vesicles in shaping the tumor microenvironment and immunomodulation and in their ability to stimulate endogenous repair processes during tissue damage. Collectively, these functions ensure an enormous potential for future therapies.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The role played by stem cell-derived EVs in the determination of cell fate. Stem cells use EVs to transfer miRNAs and stem cell effectors in recipient cells, which target the regulatory networks and induce persistent genetic transformation and phenotypic switching of resident cells towards cell-fate determination.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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fig1: The role played by stem cell-derived EVs in the determination of cell fate. Stem cells use EVs to transfer miRNAs and stem cell effectors in recipient cells, which target the regulatory networks and induce persistent genetic transformation and phenotypic switching of resident cells towards cell-fate determination.

Mentions: There is sufficient evidence to postulate that EVs carry biological messages from parent cells that interact with recipient cells and influence their normal physiology and therefore their overall fate [33]. In the context of stem cell biology, it is likely that the same principle applies (Figure 1), as biological content from stem cell-EVs has been shown to have the capability to influence and define cell fates of future populations of resident cells, potentially producing long lasting and stable transformation in genetic programs [48, 57]. Furthermore, Quesenberry et al. have also proposed that EV-mediated exchange of genetic information could be an integral element of the continuum model of stem cell biology, in which the differentiation decision of stem cells is conditioned by the cell cycle transit and environmental stimuli [58].


Extracellular Vesicles: Evolving Factors in Stem Cell Biology.

Nawaz M, Fatima F, Vallabhaneni KC, Penfornis P, Valadi H, Ekström K, Kholia S, Whitt JD, Fernandes JD, Pochampally R, Squire JA, Camussi G - Stem Cells Int (2015)

The role played by stem cell-derived EVs in the determination of cell fate. Stem cells use EVs to transfer miRNAs and stem cell effectors in recipient cells, which target the regulatory networks and induce persistent genetic transformation and phenotypic switching of resident cells towards cell-fate determination.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4663346&req=5

fig1: The role played by stem cell-derived EVs in the determination of cell fate. Stem cells use EVs to transfer miRNAs and stem cell effectors in recipient cells, which target the regulatory networks and induce persistent genetic transformation and phenotypic switching of resident cells towards cell-fate determination.
Mentions: There is sufficient evidence to postulate that EVs carry biological messages from parent cells that interact with recipient cells and influence their normal physiology and therefore their overall fate [33]. In the context of stem cell biology, it is likely that the same principle applies (Figure 1), as biological content from stem cell-EVs has been shown to have the capability to influence and define cell fates of future populations of resident cells, potentially producing long lasting and stable transformation in genetic programs [48, 57]. Furthermore, Quesenberry et al. have also proposed that EV-mediated exchange of genetic information could be an integral element of the continuum model of stem cell biology, in which the differentiation decision of stem cells is conditioned by the cell cycle transit and environmental stimuli [58].

Bottom Line: Hitherto, significant efforts have been made to understand the level of underlying paracrine activities influenced by stem cell secreted trophic factors, as little is known about these interactions.Recent findings, however, elucidate this role by reporting the effects of stem cell derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) that mimic the phenotypes of the cells from which they originate.Collectively, these functions ensure an enormous potential for future therapies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pathology and Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Avenue Bandeirantes, 3900 Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil ; Department of Rheumatology and Inflammation Research, University of Gothenburg, Box 480, 405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden.

ABSTRACT
Stem cells are proposed to continuously secrete trophic factors that potentially serve as mediators of autocrine and paracrine activities, associated with reprogramming of the tumor microenvironment, tissue regeneration, and repair. Hitherto, significant efforts have been made to understand the level of underlying paracrine activities influenced by stem cell secreted trophic factors, as little is known about these interactions. Recent findings, however, elucidate this role by reporting the effects of stem cell derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) that mimic the phenotypes of the cells from which they originate. Exchange of genetic information utilizing persistent bidirectional communication mediated by stem cell-EVs could regulate stemness, self-renewal, and differentiation in stem cells and their subpopulations. This review therefore discusses stem cell-EVs as evolving communication factors in stem cell biology, focusing on how they regulate cell fates by inducing persistent and prolonged genetic reprogramming of resident cells in a paracrine fashion. In addition, we address the role of stem cell-secreted vesicles in shaping the tumor microenvironment and immunomodulation and in their ability to stimulate endogenous repair processes during tissue damage. Collectively, these functions ensure an enormous potential for future therapies.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus