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Longxuetongluo Capsule Improves Erythrocyte Function against Lipid Peroxidation and Abnormal Hemorheological Parameters in High Fat Diet-Induced ApoE-/- Mice.

Zheng J, Liu B, Lun Q, Yao W, Zhao Y, Xiao W, Huang W, Wang Y, Li J, Tu P - Oxid Med Cell Longev (2015)

Bottom Line: Phenolic compounds are considered to be responsible for its main biological activities.In this study, total phenolic compounds of Chinese dragon's blood were made into capsule (Longxuetongluo Capsule, LTC) and their effects on the abnormal hemorheological properties were examined by high fat diet (HFD) induced ApoE-/- mice.In conclusion, LTC could ameliorate erythrocyte deformability and osmotic fragility through the reduction of lipid peroxidation on plasma and erythrocyte membranes in HFD-induced ApoE-/- mice, which supported the traditional uses of Chinese dragon's blood as an effective agent for improving blood microcirculation in hypercholesterolemia.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Modern Research Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029, China.

ABSTRACT
Chinese dragon's blood, the red resin of Dracaena cochinchinensis, one of the renowned traditional medicines, has been used to facilitate blood circulation and disperse blood stasis for thousands of years. Phenolic compounds are considered to be responsible for its main biological activities. In this study, total phenolic compounds of Chinese dragon's blood were made into capsule (Longxuetongluo Capsule, LTC) and their effects on the abnormal hemorheological properties were examined by high fat diet (HFD) induced ApoE-/- mice. Compared to the model group, LTC recovered the abnormal hemorheological parameters in HFD-induced ApoE-/- mice by reducing whole blood viscosity (WBV) at high rate and improving erythrocyte function. In conclusion, LTC could ameliorate erythrocyte deformability and osmotic fragility through the reduction of lipid peroxidation on plasma and erythrocyte membranes in HFD-induced ApoE-/- mice, which supported the traditional uses of Chinese dragon's blood as an effective agent for improving blood microcirculation in hypercholesterolemia.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

TC, TG, and LDL-c levels and MDA levels in plasma of ApoE−/− mice obtained after six weeks of drugs treatment. (a) TC, TG, and LDL-c levels in plasma. (b) MDA levels in plasma. The results reflect the outcome of experiments conducted on 9~10 mice for each measurement. ∗P < 0.05 versus HG; ∗∗P < 0.01 versus HG; ∗∗∗P < 0.001 versus HG. EG: ezetimibe-treated group, HFD: high fat diet, HG: HFD-induced group, LDL-c: low density lipoprotein cholesterol, LTC: Longxuetongluo Capsule, LTC100 group: low dose LTC-treated group, LTC200 group: middle dose LTC-treated group, LTC300 group: high dose LTC-treated group, MDA: Malondialdehyde, TC: total cholesterol, and TG: triglycerides.
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fig3: TC, TG, and LDL-c levels and MDA levels in plasma of ApoE−/− mice obtained after six weeks of drugs treatment. (a) TC, TG, and LDL-c levels in plasma. (b) MDA levels in plasma. The results reflect the outcome of experiments conducted on 9~10 mice for each measurement. ∗P < 0.05 versus HG; ∗∗P < 0.01 versus HG; ∗∗∗P < 0.001 versus HG. EG: ezetimibe-treated group, HFD: high fat diet, HG: HFD-induced group, LDL-c: low density lipoprotein cholesterol, LTC: Longxuetongluo Capsule, LTC100 group: low dose LTC-treated group, LTC200 group: middle dose LTC-treated group, LTC300 group: high dose LTC-treated group, MDA: Malondialdehyde, TC: total cholesterol, and TG: triglycerides.

Mentions: Before drug treatment, the ApoE−/− mice were fed with the HFD for one week, which significantly increased the TC, TG, and LDL-c levels by approximately 3 times, respectively (data not shown). Ezetimibe (trademark name Zetia) is a potent cholesterol absorption inhibitor that is being clinically used to treat hypercholesterolemia [31]. Ezetimibe was used as a positive contrast drug for the following study. After six weeks' treatment, ezetimibe reduced TC levels from 1180.8 to 544.379 mg/dL (46.10%; P < 0.001), TG levels from 237.364 mg/dL to 71.3628 mg/dL (30.06%; P < 0.001), and LDL-c levels from 512.8 mg/dL to 193.1 mg/dL (37.66%; P < 0.001) compared to the untreated mice fed with the same HFD (Figure 3(a)). However, all doses of LTC did not affect the TC, TG, HDL, and LDL-c levels in ApoE−/− mice. Lipid peroxidation, which refers to the oxidative degradation of lipids resulting in cell membrane damage, is considered a predictive biomarker for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases [32]. Then the end products of lipid peroxidation (MDA) are tested in our following research. The data showed that the lower plasma MDA concentrations were observed after all drugs treatment (P < 0.05, Figure 3(b)). Compared with the TLC treatments, the ezetimibe-treated mice had the better MDA-lowering effect. The antilipid peroxidation activity of ezetimibe has been reported in previous literatures [33].


Longxuetongluo Capsule Improves Erythrocyte Function against Lipid Peroxidation and Abnormal Hemorheological Parameters in High Fat Diet-Induced ApoE-/- Mice.

Zheng J, Liu B, Lun Q, Yao W, Zhao Y, Xiao W, Huang W, Wang Y, Li J, Tu P - Oxid Med Cell Longev (2015)

TC, TG, and LDL-c levels and MDA levels in plasma of ApoE−/− mice obtained after six weeks of drugs treatment. (a) TC, TG, and LDL-c levels in plasma. (b) MDA levels in plasma. The results reflect the outcome of experiments conducted on 9~10 mice for each measurement. ∗P < 0.05 versus HG; ∗∗P < 0.01 versus HG; ∗∗∗P < 0.001 versus HG. EG: ezetimibe-treated group, HFD: high fat diet, HG: HFD-induced group, LDL-c: low density lipoprotein cholesterol, LTC: Longxuetongluo Capsule, LTC100 group: low dose LTC-treated group, LTC200 group: middle dose LTC-treated group, LTC300 group: high dose LTC-treated group, MDA: Malondialdehyde, TC: total cholesterol, and TG: triglycerides.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4663336&req=5

fig3: TC, TG, and LDL-c levels and MDA levels in plasma of ApoE−/− mice obtained after six weeks of drugs treatment. (a) TC, TG, and LDL-c levels in plasma. (b) MDA levels in plasma. The results reflect the outcome of experiments conducted on 9~10 mice for each measurement. ∗P < 0.05 versus HG; ∗∗P < 0.01 versus HG; ∗∗∗P < 0.001 versus HG. EG: ezetimibe-treated group, HFD: high fat diet, HG: HFD-induced group, LDL-c: low density lipoprotein cholesterol, LTC: Longxuetongluo Capsule, LTC100 group: low dose LTC-treated group, LTC200 group: middle dose LTC-treated group, LTC300 group: high dose LTC-treated group, MDA: Malondialdehyde, TC: total cholesterol, and TG: triglycerides.
Mentions: Before drug treatment, the ApoE−/− mice were fed with the HFD for one week, which significantly increased the TC, TG, and LDL-c levels by approximately 3 times, respectively (data not shown). Ezetimibe (trademark name Zetia) is a potent cholesterol absorption inhibitor that is being clinically used to treat hypercholesterolemia [31]. Ezetimibe was used as a positive contrast drug for the following study. After six weeks' treatment, ezetimibe reduced TC levels from 1180.8 to 544.379 mg/dL (46.10%; P < 0.001), TG levels from 237.364 mg/dL to 71.3628 mg/dL (30.06%; P < 0.001), and LDL-c levels from 512.8 mg/dL to 193.1 mg/dL (37.66%; P < 0.001) compared to the untreated mice fed with the same HFD (Figure 3(a)). However, all doses of LTC did not affect the TC, TG, HDL, and LDL-c levels in ApoE−/− mice. Lipid peroxidation, which refers to the oxidative degradation of lipids resulting in cell membrane damage, is considered a predictive biomarker for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases [32]. Then the end products of lipid peroxidation (MDA) are tested in our following research. The data showed that the lower plasma MDA concentrations were observed after all drugs treatment (P < 0.05, Figure 3(b)). Compared with the TLC treatments, the ezetimibe-treated mice had the better MDA-lowering effect. The antilipid peroxidation activity of ezetimibe has been reported in previous literatures [33].

Bottom Line: Phenolic compounds are considered to be responsible for its main biological activities.In this study, total phenolic compounds of Chinese dragon's blood were made into capsule (Longxuetongluo Capsule, LTC) and their effects on the abnormal hemorheological properties were examined by high fat diet (HFD) induced ApoE-/- mice.In conclusion, LTC could ameliorate erythrocyte deformability and osmotic fragility through the reduction of lipid peroxidation on plasma and erythrocyte membranes in HFD-induced ApoE-/- mice, which supported the traditional uses of Chinese dragon's blood as an effective agent for improving blood microcirculation in hypercholesterolemia.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Modern Research Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029, China.

ABSTRACT
Chinese dragon's blood, the red resin of Dracaena cochinchinensis, one of the renowned traditional medicines, has been used to facilitate blood circulation and disperse blood stasis for thousands of years. Phenolic compounds are considered to be responsible for its main biological activities. In this study, total phenolic compounds of Chinese dragon's blood were made into capsule (Longxuetongluo Capsule, LTC) and their effects on the abnormal hemorheological properties were examined by high fat diet (HFD) induced ApoE-/- mice. Compared to the model group, LTC recovered the abnormal hemorheological parameters in HFD-induced ApoE-/- mice by reducing whole blood viscosity (WBV) at high rate and improving erythrocyte function. In conclusion, LTC could ameliorate erythrocyte deformability and osmotic fragility through the reduction of lipid peroxidation on plasma and erythrocyte membranes in HFD-induced ApoE-/- mice, which supported the traditional uses of Chinese dragon's blood as an effective agent for improving blood microcirculation in hypercholesterolemia.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus