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Current Status of Norovirus Infections in Children in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Munjita SM - J Trop Med (2015)

Bottom Line: The most common genotypes were GII.4 (65.2%), GI.7 (33.3%), and GI.3 (21.3%).These statistics were calculated from studies carried out in 12 out of 48 Sub-Saharan African countries.Therefore, more studies involving several countries are required to determine fully the epidemiology of noroviruses and their contribution to childhood diarrhoea in Sub-Saharan Africa.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Zambia, 15101 Lusaka, Zambia.

ABSTRACT
Noroviruses are a leading cause of acute sporadic gastroenteritis worldwide. In Sub-Saharan Africa, information regarding norovirus infections in children is scarce. A systematic review of studies performed between 1993 and June 2015 was conducted to establish the genotypic distribution and prevalence of norovirus infections in children (≤17) in Sub-Saharan Africa. Analysis of data from 19 studies involving 8,399 samples from children with symptomatic and nonsymptomatic gastroenteritis revealed prevalence of 12.6% (range 4.6% to 32.4%). The prevalence of norovirus infections was higher in symptomatic children (14.2%) than asymptomatic children (9.2%). Genogroup II (GII) was the most prevalent genogroup accounting for 76.4% of all the reported norovirus infections. The rest of the infections were GI (21.7%) and GI/GII (1.9%). The most common genotypes were GII.4 (65.2%), GI.7 (33.3%), and GI.3 (21.3%). These statistics were calculated from studies carried out in 12 out of 48 Sub-Saharan African countries. Therefore, more studies involving several countries are required to determine fully the epidemiology of noroviruses and their contribution to childhood diarrhoea in Sub-Saharan Africa.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Distribution of GI and GII norovirus genotypes (capsid and polymerase combined) in Sub-Saharan Africa. (a) Relative frequencies of GI genotypes among a total of 42 GI norovirus positive samples from nine studies. GI.7 and GI.3 norovirus infections were more common than any other GI genotype. (b) Relative frequencies of GII genotypes among a total of 368 GII norovirus positive samples from nine studies. GII.4 (65.2%) was the most prevalent genotype. Und: undefined. Rest: GII.e, GII.8, GII.11, GII.13, GII.14, and GII.15.
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fig2: Distribution of GI and GII norovirus genotypes (capsid and polymerase combined) in Sub-Saharan Africa. (a) Relative frequencies of GI genotypes among a total of 42 GI norovirus positive samples from nine studies. GI.7 and GI.3 norovirus infections were more common than any other GI genotype. (b) Relative frequencies of GII genotypes among a total of 368 GII norovirus positive samples from nine studies. GII.4 (65.2%) was the most prevalent genotype. Und: undefined. Rest: GII.e, GII.8, GII.11, GII.13, GII.14, and GII.15.

Mentions: GII was the most common genogroup accounting for 76.4% (730/955) of all the reported norovirus infections from 17 studies in Sub-Saharan Africa. Two studies had no information on the genogroups and one study from Nigeria (included in the 17 studies) did not sequence all the norovirus positive samples to determine the genogroups [21, 27, 30]. The rest of the infections were GI (21.7%, 207/955) and GI/GII (1.9%, 18/955). Analysis of nine studies that had information on the prevalence of GI and GII genotypes revealed a great diversity of norovirus genotypes in Sub-Saharan Africa [17, 20, 22, 23, 25, 29, 31, 33, 36]. Figures 2(a) and 2(b) show the relative frequencies of norovirus genotypes in Sub-Saharan Africa. GII.4 (65.2%) was the most prevalent GII genotype associated with acute sporadic gastroenteritis. GI.7 (33.3%) and GI.3 (21.3%) were the most common GI genotypes.


Current Status of Norovirus Infections in Children in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Munjita SM - J Trop Med (2015)

Distribution of GI and GII norovirus genotypes (capsid and polymerase combined) in Sub-Saharan Africa. (a) Relative frequencies of GI genotypes among a total of 42 GI norovirus positive samples from nine studies. GI.7 and GI.3 norovirus infections were more common than any other GI genotype. (b) Relative frequencies of GII genotypes among a total of 368 GII norovirus positive samples from nine studies. GII.4 (65.2%) was the most prevalent genotype. Und: undefined. Rest: GII.e, GII.8, GII.11, GII.13, GII.14, and GII.15.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4663330&req=5

fig2: Distribution of GI and GII norovirus genotypes (capsid and polymerase combined) in Sub-Saharan Africa. (a) Relative frequencies of GI genotypes among a total of 42 GI norovirus positive samples from nine studies. GI.7 and GI.3 norovirus infections were more common than any other GI genotype. (b) Relative frequencies of GII genotypes among a total of 368 GII norovirus positive samples from nine studies. GII.4 (65.2%) was the most prevalent genotype. Und: undefined. Rest: GII.e, GII.8, GII.11, GII.13, GII.14, and GII.15.
Mentions: GII was the most common genogroup accounting for 76.4% (730/955) of all the reported norovirus infections from 17 studies in Sub-Saharan Africa. Two studies had no information on the genogroups and one study from Nigeria (included in the 17 studies) did not sequence all the norovirus positive samples to determine the genogroups [21, 27, 30]. The rest of the infections were GI (21.7%, 207/955) and GI/GII (1.9%, 18/955). Analysis of nine studies that had information on the prevalence of GI and GII genotypes revealed a great diversity of norovirus genotypes in Sub-Saharan Africa [17, 20, 22, 23, 25, 29, 31, 33, 36]. Figures 2(a) and 2(b) show the relative frequencies of norovirus genotypes in Sub-Saharan Africa. GII.4 (65.2%) was the most prevalent GII genotype associated with acute sporadic gastroenteritis. GI.7 (33.3%) and GI.3 (21.3%) were the most common GI genotypes.

Bottom Line: The most common genotypes were GII.4 (65.2%), GI.7 (33.3%), and GI.3 (21.3%).These statistics were calculated from studies carried out in 12 out of 48 Sub-Saharan African countries.Therefore, more studies involving several countries are required to determine fully the epidemiology of noroviruses and their contribution to childhood diarrhoea in Sub-Saharan Africa.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Zambia, 15101 Lusaka, Zambia.

ABSTRACT
Noroviruses are a leading cause of acute sporadic gastroenteritis worldwide. In Sub-Saharan Africa, information regarding norovirus infections in children is scarce. A systematic review of studies performed between 1993 and June 2015 was conducted to establish the genotypic distribution and prevalence of norovirus infections in children (≤17) in Sub-Saharan Africa. Analysis of data from 19 studies involving 8,399 samples from children with symptomatic and nonsymptomatic gastroenteritis revealed prevalence of 12.6% (range 4.6% to 32.4%). The prevalence of norovirus infections was higher in symptomatic children (14.2%) than asymptomatic children (9.2%). Genogroup II (GII) was the most prevalent genogroup accounting for 76.4% of all the reported norovirus infections. The rest of the infections were GI (21.7%) and GI/GII (1.9%). The most common genotypes were GII.4 (65.2%), GI.7 (33.3%), and GI.3 (21.3%). These statistics were calculated from studies carried out in 12 out of 48 Sub-Saharan African countries. Therefore, more studies involving several countries are required to determine fully the epidemiology of noroviruses and their contribution to childhood diarrhoea in Sub-Saharan Africa.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus