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Current Status of Norovirus Infections in Children in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Munjita SM - J Trop Med (2015)

Bottom Line: The most common genotypes were GII.4 (65.2%), GI.7 (33.3%), and GI.3 (21.3%).These statistics were calculated from studies carried out in 12 out of 48 Sub-Saharan African countries.Therefore, more studies involving several countries are required to determine fully the epidemiology of noroviruses and their contribution to childhood diarrhoea in Sub-Saharan Africa.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Zambia, 15101 Lusaka, Zambia.

ABSTRACT
Noroviruses are a leading cause of acute sporadic gastroenteritis worldwide. In Sub-Saharan Africa, information regarding norovirus infections in children is scarce. A systematic review of studies performed between 1993 and June 2015 was conducted to establish the genotypic distribution and prevalence of norovirus infections in children (≤17) in Sub-Saharan Africa. Analysis of data from 19 studies involving 8,399 samples from children with symptomatic and nonsymptomatic gastroenteritis revealed prevalence of 12.6% (range 4.6% to 32.4%). The prevalence of norovirus infections was higher in symptomatic children (14.2%) than asymptomatic children (9.2%). Genogroup II (GII) was the most prevalent genogroup accounting for 76.4% of all the reported norovirus infections. The rest of the infections were GI (21.7%) and GI/GII (1.9%). The most common genotypes were GII.4 (65.2%), GI.7 (33.3%), and GI.3 (21.3%). These statistics were calculated from studies carried out in 12 out of 48 Sub-Saharan African countries. Therefore, more studies involving several countries are required to determine fully the epidemiology of noroviruses and their contribution to childhood diarrhoea in Sub-Saharan Africa.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Countries where norovirus infections in children have been reported in Sub-Saharan Africa. Countries with high norovirus prevalence (>20% ≤32.4%) are represented by the red colour. Yellow: countries with norovirus prevalence between 10% and 20%. Light green: countries with less than 10% norovirus prevalence. At the time of writing this review, there were no published reports about prevalence rates of norovirus infections in children in other Sub-Saharan African countries apart from the ones represented by red, yellow, and light green colours.
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fig1: Countries where norovirus infections in children have been reported in Sub-Saharan Africa. Countries with high norovirus prevalence (>20% ≤32.4%) are represented by the red colour. Yellow: countries with norovirus prevalence between 10% and 20%. Light green: countries with less than 10% norovirus prevalence. At the time of writing this review, there were no published reports about prevalence rates of norovirus infections in children in other Sub-Saharan African countries apart from the ones represented by red, yellow, and light green colours.

Mentions: In Sub-Saharan Africa, norovirus associated gastroenteritis outbreaks were first reported in South Africa in 1993 [37]. Hawaii (GII.1) and Norwalk (GI.1) strains were identified as causative agents during the two successive outbreaks. Subsequent seroepidemiological studies in South Africa and in Southern Africa (South Africa, Angola, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, and Namibia) published in 1996 and 1999 reported higher prevalence of IgG antibodies against the prototype Norwalk virus (GI.I), 55.5% and 94.4% seropositivity, respectively [38, 39]. Another study recorded 3% prevalence of Norwalk virus in human calicivirus (HuCVs) positive stool specimens obtained between October 1991 and October 1995 from South African patients with sporadic gastroenteritis [16]. Analysis of results from 19 reverse transcriptase-PCR based studies involving 8,399 samples from children (≤17 years) with symptomatic and nonsymptomatic gastroenteritis revealed 12.6% (1,057/8,399) prevalence of norovirus infections in Sub-Saharan Africa [18–34, 36]. The prevalence ranged from 4.6% to 32.4% (Table 1, Figure 1). Norovirus infections were more prevalent in children ≤5 years [18–34, 36]. The prevalence of norovirus infections was higher in symptomatic children (14.2%, 807/5680) than asymptomatic children (9.2%, 250/2719). However, higher prevalence of norovirus infections in asymptomatic children was reported in Botswana (31%), Burkina Faso (24.8%), and Cameroon (29.6%) [17, 18, 28].


Current Status of Norovirus Infections in Children in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Munjita SM - J Trop Med (2015)

Countries where norovirus infections in children have been reported in Sub-Saharan Africa. Countries with high norovirus prevalence (>20% ≤32.4%) are represented by the red colour. Yellow: countries with norovirus prevalence between 10% and 20%. Light green: countries with less than 10% norovirus prevalence. At the time of writing this review, there were no published reports about prevalence rates of norovirus infections in children in other Sub-Saharan African countries apart from the ones represented by red, yellow, and light green colours.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4663330&req=5

fig1: Countries where norovirus infections in children have been reported in Sub-Saharan Africa. Countries with high norovirus prevalence (>20% ≤32.4%) are represented by the red colour. Yellow: countries with norovirus prevalence between 10% and 20%. Light green: countries with less than 10% norovirus prevalence. At the time of writing this review, there were no published reports about prevalence rates of norovirus infections in children in other Sub-Saharan African countries apart from the ones represented by red, yellow, and light green colours.
Mentions: In Sub-Saharan Africa, norovirus associated gastroenteritis outbreaks were first reported in South Africa in 1993 [37]. Hawaii (GII.1) and Norwalk (GI.1) strains were identified as causative agents during the two successive outbreaks. Subsequent seroepidemiological studies in South Africa and in Southern Africa (South Africa, Angola, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, and Namibia) published in 1996 and 1999 reported higher prevalence of IgG antibodies against the prototype Norwalk virus (GI.I), 55.5% and 94.4% seropositivity, respectively [38, 39]. Another study recorded 3% prevalence of Norwalk virus in human calicivirus (HuCVs) positive stool specimens obtained between October 1991 and October 1995 from South African patients with sporadic gastroenteritis [16]. Analysis of results from 19 reverse transcriptase-PCR based studies involving 8,399 samples from children (≤17 years) with symptomatic and nonsymptomatic gastroenteritis revealed 12.6% (1,057/8,399) prevalence of norovirus infections in Sub-Saharan Africa [18–34, 36]. The prevalence ranged from 4.6% to 32.4% (Table 1, Figure 1). Norovirus infections were more prevalent in children ≤5 years [18–34, 36]. The prevalence of norovirus infections was higher in symptomatic children (14.2%, 807/5680) than asymptomatic children (9.2%, 250/2719). However, higher prevalence of norovirus infections in asymptomatic children was reported in Botswana (31%), Burkina Faso (24.8%), and Cameroon (29.6%) [17, 18, 28].

Bottom Line: The most common genotypes were GII.4 (65.2%), GI.7 (33.3%), and GI.3 (21.3%).These statistics were calculated from studies carried out in 12 out of 48 Sub-Saharan African countries.Therefore, more studies involving several countries are required to determine fully the epidemiology of noroviruses and their contribution to childhood diarrhoea in Sub-Saharan Africa.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Zambia, 15101 Lusaka, Zambia.

ABSTRACT
Noroviruses are a leading cause of acute sporadic gastroenteritis worldwide. In Sub-Saharan Africa, information regarding norovirus infections in children is scarce. A systematic review of studies performed between 1993 and June 2015 was conducted to establish the genotypic distribution and prevalence of norovirus infections in children (≤17) in Sub-Saharan Africa. Analysis of data from 19 studies involving 8,399 samples from children with symptomatic and nonsymptomatic gastroenteritis revealed prevalence of 12.6% (range 4.6% to 32.4%). The prevalence of norovirus infections was higher in symptomatic children (14.2%) than asymptomatic children (9.2%). Genogroup II (GII) was the most prevalent genogroup accounting for 76.4% of all the reported norovirus infections. The rest of the infections were GI (21.7%) and GI/GII (1.9%). The most common genotypes were GII.4 (65.2%), GI.7 (33.3%), and GI.3 (21.3%). These statistics were calculated from studies carried out in 12 out of 48 Sub-Saharan African countries. Therefore, more studies involving several countries are required to determine fully the epidemiology of noroviruses and their contribution to childhood diarrhoea in Sub-Saharan Africa.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus