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Interferon-γ-Mediated Natural Killer Cell Activation by an Aqueous Panax ginseng Extract.

Takeda K, Okumura K - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2015)

Bottom Line: This effect was only observed with the aqueous extract of P. ginseng.Interestingly, the ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 did not augment NK cell cytotoxicity.These results demonstrated that the aqueous P. ginseng extract augmented NK cell activation in vivo via an IFN-γ-dependent pathway.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Cell Biology, Biomedical Research Center, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421, Japan ; Department of Biofunctional Microbiota, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Panax ginseng extracts are used in traditional herbal medicines, particularly in eastern Asia, but their effect on natural killer (NK) cell activity is not completely understood. This study aimed to examine the effects of P. ginseng extracts on the cytotoxic activity of NK cells. We orally administered P. ginseng extracts or ginsenosides to wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 (B6) and BALB/c mice and to B6 mice deficient in either recombination activating gene 2 (RAG-2) or interferon-γ (IFN-γ). We then tested the cytotoxic activity of NK cells (of spleen and liver mononuclear cells) against NK-sensitive YAC-1 cells. Oral administration of P. ginseng aqueous extract augmented the cytotoxicity of NK cells in WT B6 and BALB/c mice and in RAG-2-deficient B6 mice, but not in IFN-γ-deficient B6 mice. This effect was only observed with the aqueous extract of P. ginseng. Interestingly, the ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 did not augment NK cell cytotoxicity. These results demonstrated that the aqueous P. ginseng extract augmented NK cell activation in vivo via an IFN-γ-dependent pathway.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Activation of NK cytotoxicity by oral administration of aqueous, but not ethanol, P. ginseng extract. (a) WT B6 mice (n = 3 in each group) were administered with aqueous extract (circle), 95% (diamond) or 50% (triangle) ethanol extracts of P. ginseng (100 mg/kg), or the same volume (200 μL) of water (square) on days -2 and -1. Liver and spleen MNCs were prepared and cytotoxicity was analyzed using YAC-1 cells at the indicated effector/target ratios. Data are shown as mean ± SD of triplicate samples of all tested mice. Similar results were obtained in three independent experiments. ∗P < 0.05 compared with the control at all effector/target ratios. (b) The populations of liver and spleen MNCs were also analyzed by flow cytometry. The MNC number and % of NK cells are indicated below every panel. Data are shown as mean ± SD of three mice in each group. Similar results were obtained in three independent experiments.
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fig5: Activation of NK cytotoxicity by oral administration of aqueous, but not ethanol, P. ginseng extract. (a) WT B6 mice (n = 3 in each group) were administered with aqueous extract (circle), 95% (diamond) or 50% (triangle) ethanol extracts of P. ginseng (100 mg/kg), or the same volume (200 μL) of water (square) on days -2 and -1. Liver and spleen MNCs were prepared and cytotoxicity was analyzed using YAC-1 cells at the indicated effector/target ratios. Data are shown as mean ± SD of triplicate samples of all tested mice. Similar results were obtained in three independent experiments. ∗P < 0.05 compared with the control at all effector/target ratios. (b) The populations of liver and spleen MNCs were also analyzed by flow cytometry. The MNC number and % of NK cells are indicated below every panel. Data are shown as mean ± SD of three mice in each group. Similar results were obtained in three independent experiments.

Mentions: Both alcohol and aqueous extracts of P. ginseng are used in complementary and alternative medicines. Our analyses demonstrated that Rb1 and Rg1 were present at higher levels in alcohol extracts (Table 1). Thus, we examined the effect of ethanol extracts of P. ginseng on NK cell cytotoxicity. Oral administration of the 95% ethanol P. ginseng extract to WT B6 did not augment liver or spleen NK cell activity (Figure 5(a)). The 50% ethanol extract appeared to increase cytotoxicity, but this effect was not statistically significant (Figure 5(a)). Ethanol extract influenced neither the number of MNCs nor the NK cell populations (Figure 5(b)). These results suggested that some constituent that was present at higher levels in the aqueous P. ginseng extract augmented NK cell activity in vivo.


Interferon-γ-Mediated Natural Killer Cell Activation by an Aqueous Panax ginseng Extract.

Takeda K, Okumura K - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2015)

Activation of NK cytotoxicity by oral administration of aqueous, but not ethanol, P. ginseng extract. (a) WT B6 mice (n = 3 in each group) were administered with aqueous extract (circle), 95% (diamond) or 50% (triangle) ethanol extracts of P. ginseng (100 mg/kg), or the same volume (200 μL) of water (square) on days -2 and -1. Liver and spleen MNCs were prepared and cytotoxicity was analyzed using YAC-1 cells at the indicated effector/target ratios. Data are shown as mean ± SD of triplicate samples of all tested mice. Similar results were obtained in three independent experiments. ∗P < 0.05 compared with the control at all effector/target ratios. (b) The populations of liver and spleen MNCs were also analyzed by flow cytometry. The MNC number and % of NK cells are indicated below every panel. Data are shown as mean ± SD of three mice in each group. Similar results were obtained in three independent experiments.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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fig5: Activation of NK cytotoxicity by oral administration of aqueous, but not ethanol, P. ginseng extract. (a) WT B6 mice (n = 3 in each group) were administered with aqueous extract (circle), 95% (diamond) or 50% (triangle) ethanol extracts of P. ginseng (100 mg/kg), or the same volume (200 μL) of water (square) on days -2 and -1. Liver and spleen MNCs were prepared and cytotoxicity was analyzed using YAC-1 cells at the indicated effector/target ratios. Data are shown as mean ± SD of triplicate samples of all tested mice. Similar results were obtained in three independent experiments. ∗P < 0.05 compared with the control at all effector/target ratios. (b) The populations of liver and spleen MNCs were also analyzed by flow cytometry. The MNC number and % of NK cells are indicated below every panel. Data are shown as mean ± SD of three mice in each group. Similar results were obtained in three independent experiments.
Mentions: Both alcohol and aqueous extracts of P. ginseng are used in complementary and alternative medicines. Our analyses demonstrated that Rb1 and Rg1 were present at higher levels in alcohol extracts (Table 1). Thus, we examined the effect of ethanol extracts of P. ginseng on NK cell cytotoxicity. Oral administration of the 95% ethanol P. ginseng extract to WT B6 did not augment liver or spleen NK cell activity (Figure 5(a)). The 50% ethanol extract appeared to increase cytotoxicity, but this effect was not statistically significant (Figure 5(a)). Ethanol extract influenced neither the number of MNCs nor the NK cell populations (Figure 5(b)). These results suggested that some constituent that was present at higher levels in the aqueous P. ginseng extract augmented NK cell activity in vivo.

Bottom Line: This effect was only observed with the aqueous extract of P. ginseng.Interestingly, the ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 did not augment NK cell cytotoxicity.These results demonstrated that the aqueous P. ginseng extract augmented NK cell activation in vivo via an IFN-γ-dependent pathway.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Cell Biology, Biomedical Research Center, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421, Japan ; Department of Biofunctional Microbiota, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Panax ginseng extracts are used in traditional herbal medicines, particularly in eastern Asia, but their effect on natural killer (NK) cell activity is not completely understood. This study aimed to examine the effects of P. ginseng extracts on the cytotoxic activity of NK cells. We orally administered P. ginseng extracts or ginsenosides to wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 (B6) and BALB/c mice and to B6 mice deficient in either recombination activating gene 2 (RAG-2) or interferon-γ (IFN-γ). We then tested the cytotoxic activity of NK cells (of spleen and liver mononuclear cells) against NK-sensitive YAC-1 cells. Oral administration of P. ginseng aqueous extract augmented the cytotoxicity of NK cells in WT B6 and BALB/c mice and in RAG-2-deficient B6 mice, but not in IFN-γ-deficient B6 mice. This effect was only observed with the aqueous extract of P. ginseng. Interestingly, the ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 did not augment NK cell cytotoxicity. These results demonstrated that the aqueous P. ginseng extract augmented NK cell activation in vivo via an IFN-γ-dependent pathway.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus