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Interferon-γ-Mediated Natural Killer Cell Activation by an Aqueous Panax ginseng Extract.

Takeda K, Okumura K - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2015)

Bottom Line: This effect was only observed with the aqueous extract of P. ginseng.Interestingly, the ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 did not augment NK cell cytotoxicity.These results demonstrated that the aqueous P. ginseng extract augmented NK cell activation in vivo via an IFN-γ-dependent pathway.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Cell Biology, Biomedical Research Center, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421, Japan ; Department of Biofunctional Microbiota, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Panax ginseng extracts are used in traditional herbal medicines, particularly in eastern Asia, but their effect on natural killer (NK) cell activity is not completely understood. This study aimed to examine the effects of P. ginseng extracts on the cytotoxic activity of NK cells. We orally administered P. ginseng extracts or ginsenosides to wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 (B6) and BALB/c mice and to B6 mice deficient in either recombination activating gene 2 (RAG-2) or interferon-γ (IFN-γ). We then tested the cytotoxic activity of NK cells (of spleen and liver mononuclear cells) against NK-sensitive YAC-1 cells. Oral administration of P. ginseng aqueous extract augmented the cytotoxicity of NK cells in WT B6 and BALB/c mice and in RAG-2-deficient B6 mice, but not in IFN-γ-deficient B6 mice. This effect was only observed with the aqueous extract of P. ginseng. Interestingly, the ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 did not augment NK cell cytotoxicity. These results demonstrated that the aqueous P. ginseng extract augmented NK cell activation in vivo via an IFN-γ-dependent pathway.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Activation of NK cytotoxicity by oral administration of aqueous P. ginseng extract, but not by administration of the ginsenosides, Rb1 and Rg1. WT B6 mice (n = 3 in each group) were administered with aqueous extract of P. ginseng (40 mg/kg), mixtures of the indicated amounts of Rb1 and/or Rg1, or the same volume (200 μL) of water on days -2 and -1 as indicated. Liver and spleen MNCs were prepared and cytotoxicity was analyzed using YAC-1 cells at the indicated effector/target ratios. Data are shown as mean ± SD of triplicate samples of all tested mice. Similar results were obtained in three independent experiments. ∗P < 0.05 compared with the control at all effector/target ratios.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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fig4: Activation of NK cytotoxicity by oral administration of aqueous P. ginseng extract, but not by administration of the ginsenosides, Rb1 and Rg1. WT B6 mice (n = 3 in each group) were administered with aqueous extract of P. ginseng (40 mg/kg), mixtures of the indicated amounts of Rb1 and/or Rg1, or the same volume (200 μL) of water on days -2 and -1 as indicated. Liver and spleen MNCs were prepared and cytotoxicity was analyzed using YAC-1 cells at the indicated effector/target ratios. Data are shown as mean ± SD of triplicate samples of all tested mice. Similar results were obtained in three independent experiments. ∗P < 0.05 compared with the control at all effector/target ratios.

Mentions: Ginsenosides are the major constituents of P. ginseng, and Rb1 and Rg1 are generally considered to be the main effector saponins of the > 20 reported ginsenosides [5]. We examined whether Rb1 and/or Rg1 activated NK activity in vivo. WT B6 mice were orally administered with mixtures of Rb1 and Rg1 that were prepared following analysis of the constituents of several commercially available P. ginseng extracts (data not shown). Interestingly, cytotoxic activity was not augmented following oral administration of either Rb1 or Rg1 (Figure 4).


Interferon-γ-Mediated Natural Killer Cell Activation by an Aqueous Panax ginseng Extract.

Takeda K, Okumura K - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2015)

Activation of NK cytotoxicity by oral administration of aqueous P. ginseng extract, but not by administration of the ginsenosides, Rb1 and Rg1. WT B6 mice (n = 3 in each group) were administered with aqueous extract of P. ginseng (40 mg/kg), mixtures of the indicated amounts of Rb1 and/or Rg1, or the same volume (200 μL) of water on days -2 and -1 as indicated. Liver and spleen MNCs were prepared and cytotoxicity was analyzed using YAC-1 cells at the indicated effector/target ratios. Data are shown as mean ± SD of triplicate samples of all tested mice. Similar results were obtained in three independent experiments. ∗P < 0.05 compared with the control at all effector/target ratios.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4663324&req=5

fig4: Activation of NK cytotoxicity by oral administration of aqueous P. ginseng extract, but not by administration of the ginsenosides, Rb1 and Rg1. WT B6 mice (n = 3 in each group) were administered with aqueous extract of P. ginseng (40 mg/kg), mixtures of the indicated amounts of Rb1 and/or Rg1, or the same volume (200 μL) of water on days -2 and -1 as indicated. Liver and spleen MNCs were prepared and cytotoxicity was analyzed using YAC-1 cells at the indicated effector/target ratios. Data are shown as mean ± SD of triplicate samples of all tested mice. Similar results were obtained in three independent experiments. ∗P < 0.05 compared with the control at all effector/target ratios.
Mentions: Ginsenosides are the major constituents of P. ginseng, and Rb1 and Rg1 are generally considered to be the main effector saponins of the > 20 reported ginsenosides [5]. We examined whether Rb1 and/or Rg1 activated NK activity in vivo. WT B6 mice were orally administered with mixtures of Rb1 and Rg1 that were prepared following analysis of the constituents of several commercially available P. ginseng extracts (data not shown). Interestingly, cytotoxic activity was not augmented following oral administration of either Rb1 or Rg1 (Figure 4).

Bottom Line: This effect was only observed with the aqueous extract of P. ginseng.Interestingly, the ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 did not augment NK cell cytotoxicity.These results demonstrated that the aqueous P. ginseng extract augmented NK cell activation in vivo via an IFN-γ-dependent pathway.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Cell Biology, Biomedical Research Center, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421, Japan ; Department of Biofunctional Microbiota, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Panax ginseng extracts are used in traditional herbal medicines, particularly in eastern Asia, but their effect on natural killer (NK) cell activity is not completely understood. This study aimed to examine the effects of P. ginseng extracts on the cytotoxic activity of NK cells. We orally administered P. ginseng extracts or ginsenosides to wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 (B6) and BALB/c mice and to B6 mice deficient in either recombination activating gene 2 (RAG-2) or interferon-γ (IFN-γ). We then tested the cytotoxic activity of NK cells (of spleen and liver mononuclear cells) against NK-sensitive YAC-1 cells. Oral administration of P. ginseng aqueous extract augmented the cytotoxicity of NK cells in WT B6 and BALB/c mice and in RAG-2-deficient B6 mice, but not in IFN-γ-deficient B6 mice. This effect was only observed with the aqueous extract of P. ginseng. Interestingly, the ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 did not augment NK cell cytotoxicity. These results demonstrated that the aqueous P. ginseng extract augmented NK cell activation in vivo via an IFN-γ-dependent pathway.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus