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Interferon-γ-Mediated Natural Killer Cell Activation by an Aqueous Panax ginseng Extract.

Takeda K, Okumura K - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2015)

Bottom Line: This effect was only observed with the aqueous extract of P. ginseng.Interestingly, the ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 did not augment NK cell cytotoxicity.These results demonstrated that the aqueous P. ginseng extract augmented NK cell activation in vivo via an IFN-γ-dependent pathway.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Cell Biology, Biomedical Research Center, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421, Japan ; Department of Biofunctional Microbiota, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Panax ginseng extracts are used in traditional herbal medicines, particularly in eastern Asia, but their effect on natural killer (NK) cell activity is not completely understood. This study aimed to examine the effects of P. ginseng extracts on the cytotoxic activity of NK cells. We orally administered P. ginseng extracts or ginsenosides to wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 (B6) and BALB/c mice and to B6 mice deficient in either recombination activating gene 2 (RAG-2) or interferon-γ (IFN-γ). We then tested the cytotoxic activity of NK cells (of spleen and liver mononuclear cells) against NK-sensitive YAC-1 cells. Oral administration of P. ginseng aqueous extract augmented the cytotoxicity of NK cells in WT B6 and BALB/c mice and in RAG-2-deficient B6 mice, but not in IFN-γ-deficient B6 mice. This effect was only observed with the aqueous extract of P. ginseng. Interestingly, the ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 did not augment NK cell cytotoxicity. These results demonstrated that the aqueous P. ginseng extract augmented NK cell activation in vivo via an IFN-γ-dependent pathway.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

IFN-γ-dependent NK cell activation by oral administration of aqueous P. ginseng extract. (a) WT, RAG-2−/−, or IFN-γ−/− B6 mice (n = 3 in each group) were orally administered with aqueous P. ginseng extract (50 mg/kg; closed square) or the same volume (200 μL) of water (open square) on days -2 and -1. Liver and spleen MNCs were prepared and cytotoxicity was analyzed using YAC-1 cells at the indicated effector/target ratios. Data are shown as mean ± SD of triplicate samples of all tested mice. Similar results were obtained in three independent experiments. ∗P < 0.05 as compared with the control at all effector/target ratios. (b) The populations of liver and spleen MNCs were analyzed by flow cytometry. The MNC number and % of NK cells are indicated below every panel. Data are shown as mean ± SD of three mice in each group. Similar results were obtained in three independent experiments.
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fig3: IFN-γ-dependent NK cell activation by oral administration of aqueous P. ginseng extract. (a) WT, RAG-2−/−, or IFN-γ−/− B6 mice (n = 3 in each group) were orally administered with aqueous P. ginseng extract (50 mg/kg; closed square) or the same volume (200 μL) of water (open square) on days -2 and -1. Liver and spleen MNCs were prepared and cytotoxicity was analyzed using YAC-1 cells at the indicated effector/target ratios. Data are shown as mean ± SD of triplicate samples of all tested mice. Similar results were obtained in three independent experiments. ∗P < 0.05 as compared with the control at all effector/target ratios. (b) The populations of liver and spleen MNCs were analyzed by flow cytometry. The MNC number and % of NK cells are indicated below every panel. Data are shown as mean ± SD of three mice in each group. Similar results were obtained in three independent experiments.

Mentions: To investigate the contribution of acquired immune cells (T cells, NKT cells, and B cells) and IFN-γ on the observed P. ginseng-mediated augmentation of cytotoxicity in vivo, we orally administered aqueous P. ginseng extract (50 mg/kg) to RAG-2−/− and IFN-γ−/− B6 mice. Liver and spleen MNCs showed augmented cytotoxicity when WT and RAG-2−/− B6 mice received aqueous P. ginseng extract (Figure 3(a)). However, this treatment did not elevate the cytotoxicity of liver and spleen MNCs in IFN-γ−/− B6 mice (Figure 3(a)), indicating a critical role for IFN-γ in this effect. Neither MNC numbers nor the NK cell populations in the liver or spleen increased, even when cytotoxicity was significantly augmented in RAG-2−/− B6 mice (Figure 3(b)), consistent with our observations in WT mice. These results indicated that oral administration of aqueous P. ginseng extract augmented NK cell cytotoxicity in an IFN-γ-dependent manner that was independent of acquired immune cell responses.


Interferon-γ-Mediated Natural Killer Cell Activation by an Aqueous Panax ginseng Extract.

Takeda K, Okumura K - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2015)

IFN-γ-dependent NK cell activation by oral administration of aqueous P. ginseng extract. (a) WT, RAG-2−/−, or IFN-γ−/− B6 mice (n = 3 in each group) were orally administered with aqueous P. ginseng extract (50 mg/kg; closed square) or the same volume (200 μL) of water (open square) on days -2 and -1. Liver and spleen MNCs were prepared and cytotoxicity was analyzed using YAC-1 cells at the indicated effector/target ratios. Data are shown as mean ± SD of triplicate samples of all tested mice. Similar results were obtained in three independent experiments. ∗P < 0.05 as compared with the control at all effector/target ratios. (b) The populations of liver and spleen MNCs were analyzed by flow cytometry. The MNC number and % of NK cells are indicated below every panel. Data are shown as mean ± SD of three mice in each group. Similar results were obtained in three independent experiments.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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fig3: IFN-γ-dependent NK cell activation by oral administration of aqueous P. ginseng extract. (a) WT, RAG-2−/−, or IFN-γ−/− B6 mice (n = 3 in each group) were orally administered with aqueous P. ginseng extract (50 mg/kg; closed square) or the same volume (200 μL) of water (open square) on days -2 and -1. Liver and spleen MNCs were prepared and cytotoxicity was analyzed using YAC-1 cells at the indicated effector/target ratios. Data are shown as mean ± SD of triplicate samples of all tested mice. Similar results were obtained in three independent experiments. ∗P < 0.05 as compared with the control at all effector/target ratios. (b) The populations of liver and spleen MNCs were analyzed by flow cytometry. The MNC number and % of NK cells are indicated below every panel. Data are shown as mean ± SD of three mice in each group. Similar results were obtained in three independent experiments.
Mentions: To investigate the contribution of acquired immune cells (T cells, NKT cells, and B cells) and IFN-γ on the observed P. ginseng-mediated augmentation of cytotoxicity in vivo, we orally administered aqueous P. ginseng extract (50 mg/kg) to RAG-2−/− and IFN-γ−/− B6 mice. Liver and spleen MNCs showed augmented cytotoxicity when WT and RAG-2−/− B6 mice received aqueous P. ginseng extract (Figure 3(a)). However, this treatment did not elevate the cytotoxicity of liver and spleen MNCs in IFN-γ−/− B6 mice (Figure 3(a)), indicating a critical role for IFN-γ in this effect. Neither MNC numbers nor the NK cell populations in the liver or spleen increased, even when cytotoxicity was significantly augmented in RAG-2−/− B6 mice (Figure 3(b)), consistent with our observations in WT mice. These results indicated that oral administration of aqueous P. ginseng extract augmented NK cell cytotoxicity in an IFN-γ-dependent manner that was independent of acquired immune cell responses.

Bottom Line: This effect was only observed with the aqueous extract of P. ginseng.Interestingly, the ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 did not augment NK cell cytotoxicity.These results demonstrated that the aqueous P. ginseng extract augmented NK cell activation in vivo via an IFN-γ-dependent pathway.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Cell Biology, Biomedical Research Center, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421, Japan ; Department of Biofunctional Microbiota, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Panax ginseng extracts are used in traditional herbal medicines, particularly in eastern Asia, but their effect on natural killer (NK) cell activity is not completely understood. This study aimed to examine the effects of P. ginseng extracts on the cytotoxic activity of NK cells. We orally administered P. ginseng extracts or ginsenosides to wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 (B6) and BALB/c mice and to B6 mice deficient in either recombination activating gene 2 (RAG-2) or interferon-γ (IFN-γ). We then tested the cytotoxic activity of NK cells (of spleen and liver mononuclear cells) against NK-sensitive YAC-1 cells. Oral administration of P. ginseng aqueous extract augmented the cytotoxicity of NK cells in WT B6 and BALB/c mice and in RAG-2-deficient B6 mice, but not in IFN-γ-deficient B6 mice. This effect was only observed with the aqueous extract of P. ginseng. Interestingly, the ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 did not augment NK cell cytotoxicity. These results demonstrated that the aqueous P. ginseng extract augmented NK cell activation in vivo via an IFN-γ-dependent pathway.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus