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Interferon-γ-Mediated Natural Killer Cell Activation by an Aqueous Panax ginseng Extract.

Takeda K, Okumura K - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2015)

Bottom Line: This effect was only observed with the aqueous extract of P. ginseng.Interestingly, the ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 did not augment NK cell cytotoxicity.These results demonstrated that the aqueous P. ginseng extract augmented NK cell activation in vivo via an IFN-γ-dependent pathway.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Cell Biology, Biomedical Research Center, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421, Japan ; Department of Biofunctional Microbiota, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Panax ginseng extracts are used in traditional herbal medicines, particularly in eastern Asia, but their effect on natural killer (NK) cell activity is not completely understood. This study aimed to examine the effects of P. ginseng extracts on the cytotoxic activity of NK cells. We orally administered P. ginseng extracts or ginsenosides to wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 (B6) and BALB/c mice and to B6 mice deficient in either recombination activating gene 2 (RAG-2) or interferon-γ (IFN-γ). We then tested the cytotoxic activity of NK cells (of spleen and liver mononuclear cells) against NK-sensitive YAC-1 cells. Oral administration of P. ginseng aqueous extract augmented the cytotoxicity of NK cells in WT B6 and BALB/c mice and in RAG-2-deficient B6 mice, but not in IFN-γ-deficient B6 mice. This effect was only observed with the aqueous extract of P. ginseng. Interestingly, the ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 did not augment NK cell cytotoxicity. These results demonstrated that the aqueous P. ginseng extract augmented NK cell activation in vivo via an IFN-γ-dependent pathway.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Concentration of Rb1 and Rg1 in aqueous extract, 50% ethanol extract, and 95% ethanol extract. Standard sample was diluted to 0.001%. Each sample was diluted to 0.2%. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was performed under the following conditions according to the Ginseng section of the revised 16th edition of the Japanese Pharmacopoeia: injected volume, 20 μL each; detector, UV absorption spectrometer (203 nm); column, stainless, 150 × 4.6 mm; octadecyl-silica (ODS), 5 μm. Mobile phase, column temperature, and flow rate for ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 were water/acetonitrile (4 : 1) and water/acetonitrile (7 : 3), 30 and 40 degrees Celsius, and retention time of about 25 and 20 minutes, respectively.
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fig1: Concentration of Rb1 and Rg1 in aqueous extract, 50% ethanol extract, and 95% ethanol extract. Standard sample was diluted to 0.001%. Each sample was diluted to 0.2%. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was performed under the following conditions according to the Ginseng section of the revised 16th edition of the Japanese Pharmacopoeia: injected volume, 20 μL each; detector, UV absorption spectrometer (203 nm); column, stainless, 150 × 4.6 mm; octadecyl-silica (ODS), 5 μm. Mobile phase, column temperature, and flow rate for ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 were water/acetonitrile (4 : 1) and water/acetonitrile (7 : 3), 30 and 40 degrees Celsius, and retention time of about 25 and 20 minutes, respectively.

Mentions: Aqueous (batch number 67EX0326) and ethanol (50% [batch number 67-X-282] or 95% [batch number 67-X-281]) extracts of P. ginseng were provided by Nagaoka & Co., Ltd. (Nishinomiya, Hyogo, Japan). Briefly, the aqueous extract was prepared with water at 85°C for 20 h, and the ethanol extracts were prepared by refluxing with 50% ethanol or 95% ethanol for 16 h. Then, extract solutions are concentrated by evaporation in vacuo to give the final extract products. The Rb1 and Rg1 levels in the extracts were estimated by liquid chromatography spectrometry using area normalization methods (Figure 1). Following the instructions of the Japanese Pharmacopoeia (http://jpdb.nihs.go.jp/jp16e/jp16e.pdf), we estimated the concentration of Rb1 and Rg1. Rb1 and Rg1 were purchased from Abcam Biochemicals (Cambridge, UK). Rb1 and Rg1 were mixed according to the constituents of several commercially available P. ginseng extracts. Extracts and ginsenosides were orally administered to mice as a suspension in distilled water (200 μL).


Interferon-γ-Mediated Natural Killer Cell Activation by an Aqueous Panax ginseng Extract.

Takeda K, Okumura K - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2015)

Concentration of Rb1 and Rg1 in aqueous extract, 50% ethanol extract, and 95% ethanol extract. Standard sample was diluted to 0.001%. Each sample was diluted to 0.2%. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was performed under the following conditions according to the Ginseng section of the revised 16th edition of the Japanese Pharmacopoeia: injected volume, 20 μL each; detector, UV absorption spectrometer (203 nm); column, stainless, 150 × 4.6 mm; octadecyl-silica (ODS), 5 μm. Mobile phase, column temperature, and flow rate for ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 were water/acetonitrile (4 : 1) and water/acetonitrile (7 : 3), 30 and 40 degrees Celsius, and retention time of about 25 and 20 minutes, respectively.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4663324&req=5

fig1: Concentration of Rb1 and Rg1 in aqueous extract, 50% ethanol extract, and 95% ethanol extract. Standard sample was diluted to 0.001%. Each sample was diluted to 0.2%. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was performed under the following conditions according to the Ginseng section of the revised 16th edition of the Japanese Pharmacopoeia: injected volume, 20 μL each; detector, UV absorption spectrometer (203 nm); column, stainless, 150 × 4.6 mm; octadecyl-silica (ODS), 5 μm. Mobile phase, column temperature, and flow rate for ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 were water/acetonitrile (4 : 1) and water/acetonitrile (7 : 3), 30 and 40 degrees Celsius, and retention time of about 25 and 20 minutes, respectively.
Mentions: Aqueous (batch number 67EX0326) and ethanol (50% [batch number 67-X-282] or 95% [batch number 67-X-281]) extracts of P. ginseng were provided by Nagaoka & Co., Ltd. (Nishinomiya, Hyogo, Japan). Briefly, the aqueous extract was prepared with water at 85°C for 20 h, and the ethanol extracts were prepared by refluxing with 50% ethanol or 95% ethanol for 16 h. Then, extract solutions are concentrated by evaporation in vacuo to give the final extract products. The Rb1 and Rg1 levels in the extracts were estimated by liquid chromatography spectrometry using area normalization methods (Figure 1). Following the instructions of the Japanese Pharmacopoeia (http://jpdb.nihs.go.jp/jp16e/jp16e.pdf), we estimated the concentration of Rb1 and Rg1. Rb1 and Rg1 were purchased from Abcam Biochemicals (Cambridge, UK). Rb1 and Rg1 were mixed according to the constituents of several commercially available P. ginseng extracts. Extracts and ginsenosides were orally administered to mice as a suspension in distilled water (200 μL).

Bottom Line: This effect was only observed with the aqueous extract of P. ginseng.Interestingly, the ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 did not augment NK cell cytotoxicity.These results demonstrated that the aqueous P. ginseng extract augmented NK cell activation in vivo via an IFN-γ-dependent pathway.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Cell Biology, Biomedical Research Center, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421, Japan ; Department of Biofunctional Microbiota, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Panax ginseng extracts are used in traditional herbal medicines, particularly in eastern Asia, but their effect on natural killer (NK) cell activity is not completely understood. This study aimed to examine the effects of P. ginseng extracts on the cytotoxic activity of NK cells. We orally administered P. ginseng extracts or ginsenosides to wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 (B6) and BALB/c mice and to B6 mice deficient in either recombination activating gene 2 (RAG-2) or interferon-γ (IFN-γ). We then tested the cytotoxic activity of NK cells (of spleen and liver mononuclear cells) against NK-sensitive YAC-1 cells. Oral administration of P. ginseng aqueous extract augmented the cytotoxicity of NK cells in WT B6 and BALB/c mice and in RAG-2-deficient B6 mice, but not in IFN-γ-deficient B6 mice. This effect was only observed with the aqueous extract of P. ginseng. Interestingly, the ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 did not augment NK cell cytotoxicity. These results demonstrated that the aqueous P. ginseng extract augmented NK cell activation in vivo via an IFN-γ-dependent pathway.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus