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Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Different Types of Chocolate, Milk, Semisweet, Dark, and Soy, in Cerebral Cortex, Hippocampus, and Cerebellum of Wistar Rats.

da Silva Medeiros N, Koslowsky Marder R, Farias Wohlenberg M, Funchal C, Dani C - Biochem Res Int (2015)

Bottom Line: The dark chocolate demonstrated higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity, followed by semisweet, soy, and milk chocolates.In the sulfhydryl assay, we observed that the levels of nonenzymatic defenses only increased with the chocolate treatments The SOD enzyme activity was modulated in the tissues treated with the chocolates.We observed in the samples of chocolate a significant polyphenol content and an important antioxidant activity; however, additional studies with different chocolates and other tissues are necessary to further such findings.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Research Center, Centro Universitário Metodista IPA, 90420-060 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
Chocolate is a product consumed worldwide and it stands out for presenting an important amount of phenolic compounds. In this study, the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of male Wistar rats when consuming different types of chocolate, including milk, semisweet, dark, and soy, was evaluated. The total polyphenols concentration and antioxidant activity in vitro by the method of DPPH radical-scavenging test were evaluated in chocolate samples. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein oxidation (carbonyl), sulfhydryl groups, and activity of SOD enzyme in cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of rats treated or not with hydrogen peroxide and/or chocolate were also evaluated. The dark chocolate demonstrated higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity, followed by semisweet, soy, and milk chocolates. The addition of chocolate in the diet of the rats reduced lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation caused by hydrogen peroxide. In the sulfhydryl assay, we observed that the levels of nonenzymatic defenses only increased with the chocolate treatments The SOD enzyme activity was modulated in the tissues treated with the chocolates. We observed in the samples of chocolate a significant polyphenol content and an important antioxidant activity; however, additional studies with different chocolates and other tissues are necessary to further such findings.

No MeSH data available.


Antioxidant activity of the SOD enzyme in cerebral cortex (a), hippocampus (b), and cerebellum (c) of Wistar rats treated with different chocolate types with or without hydrogen peroxide. Different letters show statistical difference between them (p < 0.05).
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fig4: Antioxidant activity of the SOD enzyme in cerebral cortex (a), hippocampus (b), and cerebellum (c) of Wistar rats treated with different chocolate types with or without hydrogen peroxide. Different letters show statistical difference between them (p < 0.05).

Mentions: The activity of SOD enzyme is shown in Figure 4. We observed that addition of H2O2 to the tissue reduced SOD activity of the cerebral cortex and this reduction was maintained with the addition of all the chocolates except soy chocolate where we evidence a rise in this enzyme, equivalent to the control. This reduction of SOD was also observed in all the treatments with tissue where the different chocolates were added (Figure 4(a)). In the hippocampus, the SOD activity increased with soy chocolate placed along the tissue; this increase was also observed in the presence of dark and semisweet chocolate in tissue exposed to H2O2 (Figure 4(b)). When observing the cerebellum, the activity of SOD increased in groups treated only with soy and semisweet chocolate; the same evidence was observed in the groups treated with semisweet and dark chocolate and H2O2 (Figure 4(c)).


Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Different Types of Chocolate, Milk, Semisweet, Dark, and Soy, in Cerebral Cortex, Hippocampus, and Cerebellum of Wistar Rats.

da Silva Medeiros N, Koslowsky Marder R, Farias Wohlenberg M, Funchal C, Dani C - Biochem Res Int (2015)

Antioxidant activity of the SOD enzyme in cerebral cortex (a), hippocampus (b), and cerebellum (c) of Wistar rats treated with different chocolate types with or without hydrogen peroxide. Different letters show statistical difference between them (p < 0.05).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4663303&req=5

fig4: Antioxidant activity of the SOD enzyme in cerebral cortex (a), hippocampus (b), and cerebellum (c) of Wistar rats treated with different chocolate types with or without hydrogen peroxide. Different letters show statistical difference between them (p < 0.05).
Mentions: The activity of SOD enzyme is shown in Figure 4. We observed that addition of H2O2 to the tissue reduced SOD activity of the cerebral cortex and this reduction was maintained with the addition of all the chocolates except soy chocolate where we evidence a rise in this enzyme, equivalent to the control. This reduction of SOD was also observed in all the treatments with tissue where the different chocolates were added (Figure 4(a)). In the hippocampus, the SOD activity increased with soy chocolate placed along the tissue; this increase was also observed in the presence of dark and semisweet chocolate in tissue exposed to H2O2 (Figure 4(b)). When observing the cerebellum, the activity of SOD increased in groups treated only with soy and semisweet chocolate; the same evidence was observed in the groups treated with semisweet and dark chocolate and H2O2 (Figure 4(c)).

Bottom Line: The dark chocolate demonstrated higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity, followed by semisweet, soy, and milk chocolates.In the sulfhydryl assay, we observed that the levels of nonenzymatic defenses only increased with the chocolate treatments The SOD enzyme activity was modulated in the tissues treated with the chocolates.We observed in the samples of chocolate a significant polyphenol content and an important antioxidant activity; however, additional studies with different chocolates and other tissues are necessary to further such findings.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Research Center, Centro Universitário Metodista IPA, 90420-060 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
Chocolate is a product consumed worldwide and it stands out for presenting an important amount of phenolic compounds. In this study, the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of male Wistar rats when consuming different types of chocolate, including milk, semisweet, dark, and soy, was evaluated. The total polyphenols concentration and antioxidant activity in vitro by the method of DPPH radical-scavenging test were evaluated in chocolate samples. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein oxidation (carbonyl), sulfhydryl groups, and activity of SOD enzyme in cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of rats treated or not with hydrogen peroxide and/or chocolate were also evaluated. The dark chocolate demonstrated higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity, followed by semisweet, soy, and milk chocolates. The addition of chocolate in the diet of the rats reduced lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation caused by hydrogen peroxide. In the sulfhydryl assay, we observed that the levels of nonenzymatic defenses only increased with the chocolate treatments The SOD enzyme activity was modulated in the tissues treated with the chocolates. We observed in the samples of chocolate a significant polyphenol content and an important antioxidant activity; however, additional studies with different chocolates and other tissues are necessary to further such findings.

No MeSH data available.